From menarche to regular menstruation: endocrinological background

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ioannis E Messinis


Marked changes in hormone secretion occur from childhood to adulthood. Prior to puberty gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion is markedly suppressed. At the onset of puberty, the hypothalamic gonadostat is derepressed and the amplitude of GnRH pulses increases. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels increase gradually during puberty stimulating follicle maturation and estrogen production in the ovaries. Only the negative feedback mechanism is powerful before puberty, while the positive feedback mechanism becomes active for the first time in late puberty. As a result, normal cyclicity is usually established at that time. During normal menstrual cycle, steroidal and nonsteroidal hormones mediate the effect of the ovaries on the hypothalamic-pituitary system. Estradiol and progesterone are important regulators of FSH and LH secretion, while inhibins play a role in the control of FSH secretion. Gonadotropin surge attenuating factor (GnSAF) is a nonsteroidal ovarian substance that controls the amplitude of the midcycle LH surge by antagonizing the sensitizing effect of estradiol on the pituitary.


Feb 1, 1977·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·J D HoffS S Yen
Nov 1, 1989·Journal of Reproduction and Fertility·Ioannis E Messinis, A A Templeton
Nov 1, 1973·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·J S Winter, C Faiman
Aug 1, 1994·Journal of Reproduction and Fertility·Ioannis E MessinisA A Templeton
Jul 11, 2006·Molecular Human Reproduction·Karina ZittaPatricia V Miranda


Sep 26, 2012·Nature Reviews. Endocrinology·Shahla Nader
Nov 10, 2011·Human Reproduction Update·Angela R BaerwaldRoger A Pierson
Apr 22, 2014·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·Ioannis E MessinisKonstantinos Dafopoulos
Sep 1, 2016·Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition·Peter L LuMiguel Saps
Jan 1, 2010·International Journal of Tryptophan Research : IJTR·S ComaiC V L Costa
Jul 24, 2019·PloS One·Louis MarcellinCharles Chapron
Oct 21, 2018·BMC Women's Health·Giacomo LazzeriStefano Luisi
Dec 5, 2019·Frontiers in Neuroscience·Kassandra E CoupalVictoria E Claydon
Nov 12, 2020·American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council·Theresa E Gildner
Sep 5, 2008·Journal of Proteome Research·Helen KimStephen Barnes

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Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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