Natural killer (NK) cells are the first lymphocyte population to reconstitute following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and are important in mediating immunity against both leukemia and pathogens. Although NK cell numbers generally reconstitute within a month, the acquisition of mature NK cell phenotype and full functional competency can take 6 months or more, and is influenced by graft composition, concurrent pharmacologic immunosuppression, graft-versus-host disease, and other clinical factors. In addition, cytomegalovirus infection and reactivation have a dominant effect on NK cell memory imprinting following allogeneic HSCT just as it does in healthy individuals. Our understanding of NK cell education and licensing has evolved in the years since the "missing self" hypothesis for NK-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effect was first put forward. For example, we now know that NK cell "re-education" can occur, and that unlicensed NK cells can be more protective than licensed NK cells in certain settings, thus raising new questions about how best to harness graft-versus-leukemia effect. Here, we review current understanding of the functional reconstitution of NK cells and NK cell education following allog...Continue Reading
Effect of in vitro cyclosporin. A treatment on human natural and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
Natural killer cell tolerance in mice with mosaic expression of major histocompatibility complex class I transgene
Suppression of graft-versus-host disease and amplification of graft-versus-tumor effects by activated natural killer cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
Immune reconstitution following allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation: comparison of recipients of positive CD34+ selected grafts with recipients of unmanipulated grafts
Serum levels of soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-gamma in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
Murine cytomegalovirus is regulated by a discrete subset of natural killer cells reactive with monoclonal antibody to Ly49H
NK cells recover early and mediate cytotoxicity via perforin/granzyme and Fas/FasL pathways in umbilical cord blood recipients
CD56bright natural killer cells are present in human lymph nodes and are activated by T cell-derived IL-2: a potential new link between adaptive and innate immunity.
Reconstitution of NK cell receptor repertoire following HLA-matched hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Influence of transplanted dose of CD56+ cells on development of graft-versus-host disease in patients receiving G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells from HLA-identical sibling donors
HLA-E-restricted recognition of cytomegalovirus-derived peptides by human CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes
Successful adoptive transfer and in vivo expansion of human haploidentical NK cells in patients with cancer.
NK-cell reconstitution after haploidentical hematopoietic stem-cell transplantations: immaturity of NK cells and inhibitory effect of NKG2A override GvL effect.
A subset of natural killer cells achieves self-tolerance without expressing inhibitory receptors specific for self-MHC molecules.
Improved outcome in HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia predicted by KIR and HLA genotypes.
Full haplotype-mismatched hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase II study in patients with acute leukemia at high risk of relapse
Prognostic factors of chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic blood stem-cell transplantation
KIR reconstitution is altered by T cells in the graft and correlates with clinical outcomes after unrelated donor transplantation.
Missing KIR ligands are associated with less relapse and increased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following unrelated donor allogeneic HCT
Donor natural killer cell allorecognition of missing self in haploidentical hematopoietic transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: challenging its predictive value
A subpopulation of human peripheral blood NK cells that lacks inhibitory receptors for self-MHC is developmentally immature
The unexpected effect of cyclosporin A on CD56+CD16- and CD56+CD16+ natural killer cell subpopulations
Delayed immune reconstitution after cord blood transplantation is characterized by impaired thymopoiesis and late memory T-cell skewing
Involvement of mature donor T cells in the NK cell reconstitution after haploidentical hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation
An unusual CD56(bright) CD16(low) NK cell subset dominates the early posttransplant period following HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Temporal, quantitative, and functional characteristics of single-KIR-positive alloreactive natural killer cell recovery account for impaired graft-versus-leukemia activity after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Breaking tolerance to self, circulating natural killer cells expressing inhibitory KIR for non-self HLA exhibit effector function after T cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
The pro-Th2 cytokine IL-33 directly interacts with invariant NKT and NK cells to induce IFN-gamma production
CD3+/CD19+-depleted grafts in HLA-matched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation lead to early NK cell cytolytic responses and reduced inhibitory activity of NKG2A
NK cells expressing inhibitory KIR for non-self-ligands remain tolerant in HLA-matched sibling stem cell transplantation
NK cells mediate reduction of GVHD by inhibiting activated, alloreactive T cells while retaining GVT effects
The role of Vδ2-negative γδ T cells during cytomegalovirus reactivation in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Expression patterns of NKG2A, KIR, and CD57 define a process of CD56dim NK-cell differentiation uncoupled from NK-cell education
MHC class I-deficient natural killer cells acquire a licensed phenotype after transfer into an MHC class I-sufficient environment
Conditioning regimens for autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation - can natural killer cell therapy help?
Standardized and flexible eight colour flow cytometry panels harmonized between different laboratories to study human NK cell phenotype and function
NK cells produce high levels of IL-10 early after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and suppress development of acute GVHD
The number of CD56dim NK cells in the graft has a major impact on risk of disease relapse following allo-HSCT
Fewer Circulating Natural Killer Cells 28 Days After Double Cord Blood Transplantation Predicts Inferior Survival and IL-15 Response
CD19-specific triplebody SPM-1 engages NK and γδ T cells for rapid and efficient lysis of malignant B-lymphoid cells
Nasal Wash Cytokines during Respiratory Viral Infection in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell-Transplant Recipients.
One-Year Follow-Up of Natural Killer Cell Activity in Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated With Adjuvant Lenalidomide Therapy
Natural Killer Cells Regulate Th17 Cells After Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Dendritic Cells Are Critical for the Activation and Expansion of Vδ2+ T Cells After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Transplantation
Improved Overall Survival, Relapse-Free-Survival, and Less Graft-vs.-Host-Disease in Patients With High Immune Reconstitution of TCR Gamma Delta Cells 2 Months After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
NK Cell Reconstitution in Paediatric Leukemic Patients after T-Cell-Depleted HLA-Haploidentical Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Followed by the Reinfusion of iCasp9-Modified Donor T Cells
Improved Relapse-Free Survival in Patients With High Natural Killer Cell Doses in Grafts and During Early Immune Reconstitution After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Development of Three Different NK Cell Subpopulations during Immune Reconstitution after Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prognostic Markers in GvHD and Viral Infections
Innate Immune Responses in the Outcome of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Cure Hematologic Malignancies
Conditioning with Fludarabine-Busulfan versus Busulfan-Cyclophosphamide Is Associated with Lower aGVHD and Higher Survival but More Extensive and Long Standing Bone Marrow Damage
Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Allele Determination Using Next-Generation Sequencing Technology
ST2 and REG3α as Predictive Biomarkers After Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation Using Post-transplantation High-Dose Cyclophosphamide
Delayed NK Cell Reconstitution and Reduced NK Activity Increased the Risks of CMV Disease in Allogeneic-Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Cytotoxicity of Donor Natural Killer Cells to Allo-Reactive T Cells Are Related With Acute Graft-vs.-Host-Disease Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Mass Cytometry for the Assessment of Immune Reconstitution After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Reconstituting NK Cells After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Show Impaired Response to the Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.
Dynamic Changes of Inhibitory Killer-Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on NK Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Initial Study
An Unconventional View of T Cell Reconstitution After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Expression of NK Cell Receptor Ligands on Leukemic Cells Is Associated with the Outcome of Childhood Acute Leukemia.
Early Reconstitution of NK and γδ T Cells and Its Implication for the Design of Post-Transplant Immunotherapy
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