Fundamental Aspects of Enzyme-Powered Micro- and Nanoswimmers

Accounts of Chemical Research
Tania PatiñoSamuel Sánchez


Self-propulsion at the nanoscale constitutes a challenge due to the need for overcoming viscous forces and Brownian motion. Inspired by nature, artificial micro- and nanomachines powered by catalytic reactions have been developed. Due to the toxicity of the most commonly used fuels, enzyme catalysis has emerged as a versatile and biocompatible alternative to generate self-propulsion. Different swimmer sizes, ranging from the nanoscale to the microscale, and geometries, including tubular and spherical shapes, have been explored. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying enzyme-mediated propulsion. Size, shape, enzyme quantity and distribution, as well as the intrinsic enzymatic properties, may play crucial roles in motion dynamics. In this Account, we present the efforts carried out by our group and others by the community on the use of enzymes to power micro- and nanoswimmers. We examine the different structures, materials, and enzymes reported so far to fabricate biocatalytic micro- and nanoswimmers with special emphasis on their effect in motion dynamics. We discuss the development of tubular micro- and nanojets, focusing on the different fabrication methods and the effect of length and enzy...Continue Reading


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