Fungistatic Mechanism of Ammonia against Nematode-Trapping Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Strategy for This Fungus To Survive Ammonia.

MSystems
Tong LiuKe-Qin Zhang

Abstract

Soil fungistasis is a phenomenon in which the germination and growth of fungal propagules is widely inhibited in soils. Although fungistatic compounds are known to play important roles in the formation of soil fungistasis, how such compounds act on soil fungi is little studied. In this study, it was found that ammonia (NH3) induced global protein misfolding marked by increased ubiquitination levels of proteins (ubiquitylome data and Western blot verification). The misfolded proteins should trigger the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was indicated by electron microscope image and proteome data. Results from the mutants of BiP and proteasome subunit alpha 7 suggested that ER stress played a mechanistic role in inhibiting conidial germination. Results from proteome data indicated that, to survive ammonia fungistasis, conidia first activated the unfolded protein response (UPR) to decrease ER stress and restore ER protein homeostasis, and the function of UPR in surviving ammonia was confirmed by using mutant strains. Second, ammonia toxicity could be reduced by upregulating carbon metabolism-related proteins, which benefited ammonia fixation. The results that metabolites (especially glutamate) could relieve the ammonia fung...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
PCR
ubiquitination
transmission electron microscopy
acetylation
reverse transcription PCR

Software Mentioned

KAAS
MaxQuant
Pro Plus
PSORT
WoLF PSORT
MassIVE
R package pheatmap
BLAST
KEGG Mapper
Image

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