Nov 19, 2009

Fusion genes and chromosome translocations in the common epithelial cancers

The Journal of Pathology
Paul A W Edwards

Abstract

It has been known for 25 years that fusion genes play a central role in leukaemias and sarcomas but they have been neglected in the common carcinomas, largely because of technical limitations of cytogenetics. In the last few years it has emerged that gene fusions, caused by chromosome translocations, inversions, deletions, etc., are important in the common epithelial cancers, such as prostate and lung carcinoma. Most prostate cancers, for example, have an androgen-regulated fusion of one of the ETS transcription factor gene family. Early results of genome-wide searches for gene fusions in breast and other epithelial cancers suggest that most individual tumours will have several fused genes. Fusion genes are exceptionally powerful mutations. In their simplest form they can turn on expression by promoter insertion but they can also, for example, force dimerization of a protein or change its subcellular location. They are correspondingly important clinically, in classification and management and as targets for therapy. This review surveys what we know of fusion genes in the carcinomas, summarizes the technical advances that now make it possible to search systematically for such genes, and concludes by putting fusion genes into the...Continue Reading

  • References92
  • Citations25

References

  • References92
  • Citations25

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Genome-Wide Association Study
Prostatic Neoplasms
Sarcoma
Cytogenetics
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Neoplasms
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Promoter
Androgens
Carcinoma of Lung

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