PMID: 15757408Mar 11, 2005Paper

Future pharmacological treatment options for nonexudative and exudative age-related macular degeneration

Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Grant M ComerMark H Criswell


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the industrialised world. Within the past decade, researchers have introduced many promising prevention and treatment options in an attempt to minimise the central vision loss imparted from AMD. Based on large-scale, randomised, prospective, placebo-controlled trials, a specially formulated combination of the antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, copper and zinc is the only proven means of AMD prophylaxis. Thermal laser photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin are the only standard treatment options. However, efficacy is limited and treatment is only applicable to a minority of AMD patients. Thus, alternative pharmacological interventions are in all phases of clinical development. Researchers are guardedly optimistic that these advances may change the entire approach to AMD management in the near future. This review article will detail the currently accepted treatment options, as well as describe several of the more promising investigational pharmacological approaches to AMD.


Jul 1, 1977·American Journal of Epidemiology·H A KahnT R Dawber
Jan 1, 1991·Age and Ageing·H Gerster
Apr 1, 1990·Trends in Genetics : TIG·L M Matrisian
Sep 1, 1987·Annals of Surgery·J Folkman, D E Ingber
Jan 1, 1988·Survey of Ophthalmology·R W Young
Jan 1, 1985·Vision Research·R A BoneS L Tarsis
Jul 1, 1983·Archives of Ophthalmology·H Ohkuma, S J Ryan
Jan 1, 1983·Progress in Lipid Research·S J Fliesler, R E Anderson
Nov 7, 1995·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·L P AielloL E Smith
Dec 1, 1995·Archives of Ophthalmology·J A Mares-PerlmanM Palta
Jun 15, 1993·American Journal of Ophthalmology·K B FreundJohn Sorenson
May 4, 1995·The New England Journal of Medicine·J M TielschA Sommer
Apr 1, 1995·Ophthalmology·E FriedmanEvangelos S Gragoudas
Nov 9, 1994·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Johanna M SeddonD G Miller
Mar 1, 1994·Photochemistry and Photobiology·B AvelineR W Redmond
Apr 14, 1994·The New England Journal of Medicine·Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group
Feb 1, 1994·Archives of Ophthalmology·S WestNeil M Bressler
Jan 1, 1995·International Ophthalmology·J ZhaoP F Lopez
May 1, 1997·Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology = Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv Für Klinische Und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie·X YiM Uyama
Dec 31, 1997·American Journal of Ophthalmology·E Friedman
Dec 8, 1998·Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology·J K ChallaFrank Billson
Oct 26, 1999·Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics : the Official Journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics·L G McNattA F Clark
Oct 26, 1999·Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics : the Official Journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics·A MartidisR S Moorthy
Sep 8, 2000·Current Opinion in Ophthalmology·C D Regillo
Oct 18, 2000·Survey of Ophthalmology·S BeattyM Boulton
Feb 28, 2001·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·V StellmachNoel Bouck
Apr 4, 2001·Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica·Thomas A CiullaB J Martin
Apr 12, 2001·Ophthalmology·Thomas A CiullaT G Filloon
Jul 5, 2001·Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics : the Official Journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics·Lingyun ChengWilliam R Freeman
Aug 18, 2001·BMJ : British Medical Journal·N F HallChristopher N Martyn
Jan 30, 2002·The British Journal of Ophthalmology·Thomas A CiullaHanna J Garzozi
Mar 9, 2002·Photochemistry and Photobiology·Hirokazu NishiwakiRhonda Grebe
Nov 1, 1995·Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology·Philip PenfoldF A Billson
Aug 15, 2002·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Jocelyn HolashJohn S Rudge
Oct 17, 2002·Archives of Ophthalmology·Mark S BlumenkranzTreatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Photodynamic Therapy (TAP) Study Group
Dec 12, 2002·Retina·Mahmoud GenaidyDiane A Blake
Dec 19, 2002·The British Journal of Ophthalmology·J B JonasR Degenring
Mar 19, 2003·The British Journal of Ophthalmology·J B JonasR Degenring
Mar 26, 2003·Journal of Cellular Physiology·Yoshitsugu SaishinPeter A Campochiaro
May 27, 2003·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Catharine R GaleChristopher N Martyn
Jul 29, 2003·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Hiroyuki NambuPeter A Campochiaro
Aug 13, 2003·Archives of Ophthalmology·Ronald KleinKaren J Cruickshanks
Aug 21, 2003·The British Journal of Ophthalmology·G McGwinR J Crain
Sep 26, 2003·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Hiroyasu TakitaKeisuke Mori
Nov 5, 2003·American Journal of Ophthalmology·Darius M MoshfeghiWilliam F Mieler
Jan 17, 2004·Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology·Joseph Gadzia, Thelda Kestenbaum
Feb 27, 2004·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Peter A Campochiaro, C99-PKC412-003 Study Group
May 6, 2004·American Journal of Ophthalmology·Salvatore GrisantiKarl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt
Jul 14, 2004·Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy·S ShajiT M A Rasheed
Jul 2, 2005·Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs·A F Clark


Oct 10, 2007·Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs·Eddy AngladeUlrich Grau
Oct 4, 2005·Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy·Ian ConstableElizabeth Rakoczy
Mar 6, 2020·Journal of Pineal Research·Hernán H DiéguezDamián Dorfman

Related Concepts

Antioxidant Effect
Clinical Trials
Age Related Macular Degeneration
Macular Retinal Edema
Investigational New Drugs

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection

Lipidomics can be used to examine the lipid species involved with pathogenic conditions, such as viral associated inflammation. Discovered the latest research on Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Torsion Dystonia

Torsion dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by loss of control of voluntary movements appearing as sustained muscle contractions and/or abnormal postures. Here is the latest research.

Archaeal RNA Polymerase

Archaeal RNA polymerases are most similar to eukaryotic RNA polymerase II but require the support of only two archaeal general transcription factors, TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and TFB (archaeal homologue of the eukaryotic general transcription factor TFIIB) to initiate basal transcription. Here is the latest research on archaeal RNA polymerases.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Related Papers

Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
K D Rittenhouse, G M Pollack
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology = Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv Für Klinische Und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie
K AdachiY Honda
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved