GABA metabolism and transport: effects on synaptic efficacy

Neural Plasticity
Fabian C Roth, Andreas Draguhn

Abstract

GABAergic inhibition is an important regulator of excitability in neuronal networks. In addition, inhibitory synaptic signals contribute crucially to the organization of spatiotemporal patterns of network activity, especially during coherent oscillations. In order to maintain stable network states, the release of GABA by interneurons must be plastic in timing and amount. This homeostatic regulation is achieved by several pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms and is triggered by various activity-dependent local signals such as excitatory input or ambient levels of neurotransmitters. Here, we review findings on the availability of GABA for release at presynaptic terminals of interneurons. Presynaptic GABA content seems to be an important determinant of inhibitory efficacy and can be differentially regulated by changing synthesis, transport, and degradation of GABA or related molecules. We will discuss the functional impact of such regulations on neuronal network patterns and, finally, point towards pharmacological approaches targeting these processes.

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Related Concepts

Presynaptic Terminals
Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Metabolic Process
Neural Inhibition
Neurons
Synaptic Transmission
Synapses
Neuronal
Interneurons
Neurotransmitters
Metabolic Inhibition

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