Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSHs) are melanotropin peptides that are derived from the ACTH/beta-endorphin prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC). They have been highly conserved through evolutionary development, although their functions in mammals have remained obscure. The identification in the last decade of a family of five membrane-spanning melanocortin receptors (MC-Rs), for which the melanotropins are the natural ligands, has permitted the characterization of a number of important actions of these peptides, although the physiological function(s) of gamma-MSH have remained elusive. Much evidence indicates that gamma-MSH stimulates sympathetic outflow and raises blood pressure through a central mechanism. However, this review focuses on newer cardiovascular and renal actions of the peptide, acting in most cases through the MC3-R. In rodents, a high-sodium diet (HSD) increases the pituitary abundance of POMC mRNA and of gamma-MSH content and results in a doubling of plasma gamma-MSH concentration. The peptide is natriuretic and acts through renal MC3-Rs, which are also upregulated by the HSD. Thus the system appears designed to participate in the integrated response to dietary sodium excess. Gene...Continue Reading
Growth, endocrinological and behavioral deficits after monosodium L-glutamate in the neonatal rat: possible involvement of arcuate dopamine neuron damage
Role of hemodynamic changes in the increased cation excretion after acute unilateral nephrectomy in the anesthetized dog
Cardiovascular and renal effects of gamma-MSH in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats
FMRF-amide and L-Arg-L-Phe increase blood pressure and heart rate in the anaesthetised rat by central stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
Gamma 2-MSH in congestive heart failure: relation to atrial natriuretic peptide, arginine vasopressin and catecholamines
Gamma 2-MSH increases during graded exercise in healthy subjects: comparison with plasma catecholamines, neuropeptides, aldosterone and renin activity
ACTH-(4-10) through gamma-MSH: evidence for a new class of central autonomic nervous system-regulating peptides
Immunohistochemical distribution and partial characterization of FLFQPQRFamidelike peptides in the central nervous system of rats
Immunoreactive proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides and POMC-like messenger ribonucleic acid are present in many rat nonpituitary tissues
Effect of salt loading on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) messenger ribonucleic acid levels, POMC biosynthesis, and secretion of POMC products in the mouse pituitary gland
Sequential changes of cerebrospinal fluid sodium during the development of hypertension in Dahl rats
Role of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region of the rat brain in the pressor response to gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma 2-MSH)
A gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone-like peptide causes reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy
Prevention of reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy by neonatal administration of MSG
Plasma immunoreactive gamma melanotropin in patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, aldosterone-producing adenomas, and essential hypertension
The effect of ingestion of hypertonic saline on the melanocyte-stimulating hormone content and histology of the pars intermedia of the rat pituitary gland
Comparative immunohistochemical studies of gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in the bovine and human pituitaries
Immunocytochemical evidence for the presence of gamma 1-MSH-like immunoreactivity in pituitary corticotrophs and ACTH-producing tumours
Hemodynamic and renal functional changes after acute unilateral nephrectomy in the dog: role of carotid sinus baroreceptors
Blood pressure elevation in rats by peripheral administration of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe and the invertebrate neuropeptide, Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2
Prevention by vagotomy or atropine administration of the hemodynamic changes occurring after acute unilateral nephrectomy in the dog
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and AP-1 are activated during cAMP-induced melanogenesis in B-16 melanoma cells.
Cyclic lactam alpha-melanotropin analogues of Ac-Nle4-cyclo[Asp5, D-Phe7,Lys10] alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-(4-10)-NH2 with bulky aromatic amino acids at position 7 show high antagonist potency and selectivity at specific melanocortin receptors
Sodium status affects GC-B natriuretic peptide receptor mRNA levels, but not GC-A or C receptor mRNA levels, in the sheep kidney
A hypotensive and bradycardic action of gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma 2-MSH) microinjected into the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat
Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a mouse melanocortin receptor gene
Hereditary isolated glucocorticoid deficiency is associated with abnormalities of the adrenocorticotropin receptor gene
Functional characterization of the cloned human ACTH receptor: impaired responsiveness of a mutant receptor in familial glucocorticoid deficiency
The hemodynamic effects of gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and related melanotropins depend on the arousal potential of the rat
Identification of a receptor for gamma melanotropin and other proopiomelanocortin peptides in the hypothalamus and limbic system
Structure-activity analysis for the effects of gamma-MSH/ACTH-like peptides on cerebral hemodynamics in rats
Different cardiovascular profiles of three melanocortins in conscious rats; evidence for antagonism between gamma 2-MSH and ACTH-(1-24)
Influence of blockade of alpha 1-adrenoceptors, beta 1-adrenoceptors and vasopressin V1A receptors on the cardiovascular effects of gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma 2-MSH)
Prevention of reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy by melanocortin receptor antagonists
Severe early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency and red hair pigmentation caused by POMC mutations in humans
The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 is required for peptide hormone processing in vivo and provides a novel mechanism for pituitary Cushing's disease
Conformation of the core sequence in melanocortin peptides directs selectivity for the melanocortin MC3 and MC4 receptors.
Loss of function mutations of the human melanocortin 1 receptor are common and are associated with red hair
The role of melanocortin signalling in the control of body weight: evidence from human and murine genetic models
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) products in the central regulation of sympathetic and cardiovascular dynamics: studies on melanocortin and opioid interactions
Leptin resistance in obesity is characterized by decreased sensitivity to proopiomelanocortin products
Relevance of the C-terminal Arg-Phe sequence in gamma(2)-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma(2)-MSH) for inducing cardiovascular effects in conscious rats
Relationships between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity: a short review of evidence
Dietary salt supplementation selectively downregulates NPR-C receptor expression in kidney independently of ANP
Mortality in 7B2 null mice can be rescued by adrenalectomy: involvement of dopamine in ACTH hypersecretion
Brain amiloride-sensitive Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)--gated Na(+) channels and Na(+)-induced sympathoexcitation and hypertension
The effects of acute and chronic alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) on cardiovascular dynamics in conscious rats
Central alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone acts at melanocortin-4 receptor to activate sympathetic nervous system in conscious rabbits
Dietary sodium modulates mRNA abundance of enzymes involved in pituitary processing of proopiomelanocortin
Role of MC4 receptors in the depressor and bradycardic effects of alpha-MSH in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat
Suppression of gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone secretion is accompanied by salt-sensitive hypertension in the rat
Nle3,d-Phe6 ]-γ2 -melanocyte-stimulating hormone possesses the renal excretory but not the cardiovascular actions of the native γ2 -melanocyte-stimulating hormone in anaesthetized rats
Impact of obesity on renal structure and function in the presence and absence of hypertension: evidence from melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient mice
A comparative study of the central effects of specific proopiomelancortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin peptides on food intake and body weight in pomc null mice
γ₂-Melanocyte stimulation hormone (γ₂-MSH) truncation studies results in the cautionary note that γ₂-MSH is not selective for the mouse MC3R over the mouse MC5R
beta-Endorphin in the median preoptic nucleus modulates the pressor response induced by subcutaneous hypertonic sodium chloride
Modulation by dietary sodium intake of melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA and protein abundance in the rat kidney
Evidence for a noradrenergic mechanism causing hypertension and abnormal glucose metabolism in rats with relative deficiency of gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Effects of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) on food intake and body weight: mechanisms and therapeutic potential?
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