Gastric fundus relaxation and emetic sequences induced by apomorphine and intragastric lipid infusion in healthy humans
The American Journal of Gastroenterology
A CastroJ R Malagelada
Experimental animal studies have suggested that gastric relaxation precedes emesis, whether induced by peripheral or central stimuli. We aimed to quantify the gastric relaxatory and symptomatic responses to a standardized emetic inductor. In healthy volunteers, we measured the gastric and symptomatic response to two different proemetic stimuli: a peripheral stimulus (intragastric infusion at 5 ml/min of 50% fat emulsion in water) and a central stimulus (s.c. apomorphine at 0.01 mg/kg). Proximal gastric tone was continuously recorded by an electronic barostat. Symptoms were simultaneously quantified by a graded questionnaire. Lipid-induced gastric relaxation occurred in 17/17 subjects and was followed by nausea in 12/17. The total amount of intragastric fat required to trigger gastric relaxation was 139 +/- 34 ml and to induce nausea, 258 +/- 32 ml. Gastric relaxation after subcutaneous apomorphine occurred in 13/14, and nausea/emesis, in the same 13/14. As expected, timing of events after stimulation was much shorter in response to the central than to the peripheral stimulus. Thus, gastric relaxation began 4.0 +/- 0.6 min after subcutaneous apomorphine and 28 +/- 7 min after the onset of lipid infusion (p < 0.05); likewise, the...Continue Reading
Allergy and asthma are inflammatory disorders that are triggered by the activation of an allergen-specific regulatory t cell. These t cells become activated when allergens are recognized by allergen-presenting cells. Here is the latest research on allergy and asthma.