Gastroparesis in type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment

Current Gastroenterology Reports
Nicolas Intagliata, Kenneth L Koch


The worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a substantial economic and social burden. Although gastroparesis associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been recognized for years, only recently have studies shown that patients with T2DM also have high rates of gastroparesis. Individuals with T2DM constitute 90% to 95% of the diabetic population. Unique characteristics that distinguish this population are obesity, insulin resistance, and associated comorbidities. These features highlight the importance of investigating gastric emptying in individuals with T2DM and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature pertaining to diabetes and the effect of diabetes on gastric neuromuscular function, with a focus on T2DM. An understanding of gastric motility in T2DM is important to diagnose gastroparesis, to treat upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and to restore normal gastric motility, which may lead, in turn, to improved glucose control.


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