GDF-15 as a Target and Biomarker for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Translational Prospective

Journal of Diabetes Research
Ramu Adela, Sanjay K Banerjee


Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress responsive cytokine. It is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes, adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in normal and pathological condition. GDF-15 increases during tissue injury and inflammatory states and is associated with cardiometabolic risk. Increased GDF-15 levels are associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertrophy, heart failure, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and chronic kidney diseases in diabetes. Increased GDF-15 level is linked with the progression and prognosis of the disease condition. Age, smoking, and environmental factors are other risk factors that may increase GDF-15 level. Most of the scientific studies reported that GDF-15 plays a protective role in different tissues. However, few reports show that the deficiency of GDF-15 is beneficial against vascular injury and inflammation. GDF-15 protects heart, adipose tissue, and endothelial cells by inhibiting JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), Bad (Bcl-2-associated death promoter), and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and activating Smad, eNOS, PI3K, and AKT signaling pathways. The present review describes the ...Continue Reading


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