PMID: 2602580Dec 1, 1989Paper

Gender differences in anger expression: health implications

Research in Nursing & Health
S P Thomas


Anger expression modes were examined in a diverse sample of mid-life men and women (N = 139) participating in the third phase of a longitudinal study of health that began in 1982 at the World's Fair and a metropolitan general hospital in Tennessee. Contrary to previous studies, men and women did not differ in the likelihood of suppressing their anger (anger-in), nor were there gender differences in anger-out. However, t tests revealed significant differences between men and women in the likelihood of discussing anger and expressing anger via physical symptoms (women higher on both). The only mode of anger expression related to poorer health status was expression of anger via physical symptoms; anger-in, anger-out, and anger-discuss modes were unrelated. Correlates of anger symptoms for both men and women included lower levels of education and optimism, poorer health habits, and external locus of control beliefs. Several correlations were found to be gender-specific; e.g., women who exhibited more anger symptomatology were not suppressors of their anger, but directed it outward, taking it out on others and blaming others. Implications were discussed.


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Jun 1, 1995·Journal of Behavioral Medicine·K Davidson, P Hall
Mar 1, 1996·Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings·D L ClayR G Frank
May 1, 1997·Applied Nursing Research : ANR·S P Thomas
Aug 1, 1997·The Journal of Social Psychology·T P Palfai, K E Hart
Jan 1, 2009·Health Care for Women International·Shirley A Thomas, A Antonio González-Prendes
Jan 1, 1995·Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing·A Kettles
Jul 20, 1999·Journal of Personality Assessment·C G StrassleD D Plant
Jan 1, 1991·Issues in Mental Health Nursing·S P Thomas
Jan 1, 1990·Issues in Mental Health Nursing·S P Thomas
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Jul 1, 1995·Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing·C D SpielbergerS J Sydeman
Oct 13, 2001·Psychological Reports·N E MahonT J Yarcheski
Nov 28, 2008·International Journal of Cardiology·Krisztina D LászlóStaffan Ahnve
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Jun 2, 2016·Journal of Personality Assessment·Matthew J JasinskiJohn W Burns
Nov 9, 2016·Health Communication·Adam S Richards, Micah Larsen
Nov 13, 2004·Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin·Peter KuppensMichel Meulders
Aug 13, 1999·Assessment·L MusanteW O Thompson
Feb 8, 1991·American Journal of Health Promotion : AJHP·S P Thomas, M M Donnellan

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