Genetic and antigenic analysis of the influenza virus responsible for the 1992 Hong Kong equine influenza epizootic

A C LaiT M Chambers


An outbreak of influenza occurred among thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong in November-December 1992, with morbidity of 37%. All horses involved had been vaccinated against equine-1 and equine-2 influenza viruses but not against the virus responsible for the 1989 equine influenza outbreak in northern China (influenza A/equine/Jilin/89, subtype H3N8). Therefore the source and nature of the virus causing the Hong Kong outbreak was investigated. Virus isolated from a horse infected during the outbreak was used for genetic analysis. All the viral gene segments were similar to those of equine-2 (H3N8) influenza viruses and unrelated to those of equine/Jilin/89 virus. The nucleotide sequence of the viral hemagglutinin gene showed high homology (99.4%) to that of influenza A/equine/Suffolk/89 (H3N8) virus which has circulated extensively in Europe. However, these viruses differed in their antigenic reactivity to a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Preliminary epizootiological information plus the concordance of amino acid sequence between hemagglutinins of the Hong Kong isolate and a contemporaneous equine-2 influenza virus isolate from the United Kingdom indicated that the probable source of the Hong Kong outbreak was horses recently...Continue Reading


Oct 1, 1996·Epidemiology and Infection·C A AdeyefaJ W McCauley
Jan 1, 2008·Journal of Equine Science·Shigeo SugitaNobushige Ishida
May 16, 2003·The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice·Pamela A Wilkins
Jun 19, 2010·Archives of Virology·Ting QiWen-Hua Xiang

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