Genetically based impairment in CYP2C8- and CYP2C9-dependent NSAID metabolism as a risk factor for gastrointestinal bleeding: is a combination of pharmacogenomics and metabolomics required to improve personalized medicine?

Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
José A G AgúndezCarmen Martínez

Abstract

Polymorphisms in CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 are common in all the human populations and many CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 gene variations cause decreased enzyme activity towards the NSAIDs aceclofenac, celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethazine, lornoxicam, meloxicam, naproxen, piroxicam, tenoxicam and valdecoxib. This impairment in drug biodisposition alters drug pharmacokinetics, with carriers of detrimental mutations displaying increased values of AUC and decreased drug clearance. Individuals carrying the gene variants CYP2C8*3 (rs11572080; rs10509681), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853) or CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910) show increased risk of developing acute gastrointestinal bleeding during the use of NSAID that are CYP2C8 or CYP2C9 substrates. However, it is not known whether parent drugs or products of alternative metabolic pathways are responsible for bleeding. We present an overview of the current knowledge of relevant polymorphisms of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genes, their association with NSAID metabolism and pharmacokinetics and a meta-analysis that confirms the clinical significance of these gene variations with regard to gastrointestinal bleeding.

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