Apr 12, 2020

Nitric oxide (NO) signaling in Trichoplax and related species: Microchemical characterization and the lineage-specific diversification

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Leonid L MorozDirk Fasshauer

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gaseous messenger with a broad distribution across the animal kingdom. However, the early evolution of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in animals is unclear due to limited information about prebilaterian metazoans such as placozoans. Here, we analyzed NO synthases (NOS) in four different species of placozoans (haplotypes H1, H2, H4, H13). In contrast to all other invertebrates studied, Hoilungia and Trichoplax have three distinct NOS genes, including PDZ domain-containing NOS. To characterize NOS activity in Trichoplax adhaerens, we used capillary electrophoresis for microchemical assays of NO-related metabolites. Specifically, we quantified nitrites (products of NO oxidation) and L-citrulline (co-product of NO synthesis from L-arginine), which were affected by NOS inhibitors confirming the presence of functional NOS. Next, using fluorescent single-molecule in situ hybridization, we showed that distinct NOSs are expressed in different subpopulations of cells, with a noticeable distribution close to the edge regions of Trichoplax. These data suggest the compartmentalized release of this messenger and a greater diversity of cell types in placozoans than anticipated. We also revealed a dramatic ...Continue Reading

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