Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the Cystatin Gene Family in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Long HeKaili Zhong


Cystatins, as reversible inhibitors of papain-like and legumain proteases, have been identified in several plant species. Although the cystatin family plays crucial roles in plant development and defense responses to various stresses, this family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is still poorly understood. In this study, 55 wheat cystatins (TaCystatins) were identified. All TaCystatins were divided into three groups and both the conserved gene structures and peptide motifs were relatively conserved within each group. Homoeolog analysis suggested that both homoeolog retention percentage and gene duplications contributed to the abundance of the TaCystatin family. Analysis of duplication events confirmed that segmental duplications played an important role in the duplication patterns. The results of codon usage pattern analysis showed that TaCystatins had evident codon usage bias, which was mainly affected by mutation pressure. TaCystatins may be regulated by cis-acting elements, especially abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate responsive elements. In addition, the expression of all selected TaCystatins was significantly changed following viral infection and cold stress, suggesting potential roles in response to biotic and abiotic cha...Continue Reading

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