Genomic landscape of human papillomavirus-associated cancers

Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Maria RusanPeter S Hammerman

Abstract

Recent next-generation sequencing studies have generated a comprehensive overview of the genomic landscape of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. This review summarizes these findings to provide insight into the tumor biology of these cancers and potential therapeutic opportunities for HPV-driven malignancies. In addition to the tumorigenic properties of the HPV oncoproteins, integration of HPV DNA into the host genome is suggested to be a driver of the neoplastic process. Integration may confer a growth and survival advantage via enhanced expression of viral oncoproteins, alteration of critical cellular genes, and changes in global promoter methylation and transcription. Alteration of cellular genes may lead to loss of function of tumor suppressor genes, enhanced oncogene expression, loss of function of DNA repair genes, or other vital cellular functions. Recurrent integrations in RAD51B, NR4A2, and TP63, leading to aberrant forms of these proteins, are observed in both HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and cervical carcinoma. Additional genomic alterations, independent of integration events, include recurrent PIK3CA mutations (and aberrations in other members of the PI3K pathway), alteratio...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Malignant Neoplasms
Papillomavirus Infections
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Antiviral Agents
Cell Differentiation Process
DNA
Genes
Genome
Head
Human Papillomavirus

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