Nov 28, 2014

Genomics review of holocellulose deconstruction by aspergilli

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR
Fernando SegatoRolf Prade

Abstract

Biomass is constructed of dense recalcitrant polymeric materials: proteins, lignin, and holocellulose, a fraction constituting fibrous cellulose wrapped in hemicellulose-pectin. Bacteria and fungi are abundant in soil and forest floors, actively recycling biomass mainly by extracting sugars from holocellulose degradation. Here we review the genome-wide contents of seven Aspergillus species and unravel hundreds of gene models encoding holocellulose-degrading enzymes. Numerous apparent gene duplications followed functional evolution, grouping similar genes into smaller coherent functional families according to specialized structural features, domain organization, biochemical activity, and genus genome distribution. Aspergilli contain about 37 cellulase gene models, clustered in two mechanistic categories: 27 hydrolyze and 10 oxidize glycosidic bonds. Within the oxidative enzymes, we found two cellobiose dehydrogenases that produce oxygen radicals utilized by eight lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases that oxidize glycosidic linkages, breaking crystalline cellulose chains and making them accessible to hydrolytic enzymes. Among the hydrolases, six cellobiohydrolases with a tunnel-like structural fold embrace single crystalline cellu...Continue Reading

  • References196
  • Citations11

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Neurospora crassa
Aspergillus Niger Infection
Extracellular
Enzymes, antithrombotic
Cellobiose
Xylosidases
Tertiary Protein Structure
Beta-glucuronidase
Xylanase Activity
Hemicellulase

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