This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of mainstream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it has been tested, with the base/neutral fractions being the most mutagenic. In rodents, cigarette smoke induces sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in bone marrow and lung cells. In humans, newborns of smoking mothers have elevated frequencies of HPRT mutants, translocations, and DNA strand breaks. Sperm of smokers have elevated frequencies of aneuploidy, DNA adducts, strand breaks, and oxidative damage. Smoking also produces mutagenic cervical mucus, micronuclei in cervical epithelial cells, and genotoxic amniotic fluid. These data suggest that tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. Tobacco smoke produces mutagenic urine, and it is a human somatic-cell mutagen, producing HPRT mutations, SCEs, microsatellite instability, and DNA damage in a variety of tissues. Of the 11 organ sites at which smoking causes cancer in humans, smoking-associated genotoxic effects have been found in all eight that have been examined thus far: oral/nasal, esophagus, pharynx/larynx, lung, pancreas, myeoloid organs, bladder/ureter, uterine c...Continue Reading
Concentration of mutagens from urine by absorption with the nonpolar resin XAD-2: cigarette smokers have mutagenic urine
Sister chromatid exchanges in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and in lung cancer patients; and the effect of chemotherapy
Cigarette smoke-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung cells: role of hydroxyl radicals and endonuclease activation
Oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion in humans: influence of smoking, gender and body mass index
Cytogenetic analyses of diesel engine exhaust by sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests with mouse fetal liver cells
Evidence for maternal predisposition to chromosome aneuploidy in multiple oocytes of some in vitro fertilization patients
Localized formation of micronuclei in the oral mucosa and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the saliva of "reverse" smokers, Khaini-tobacco chewers and gudakhu users
32P-postlabelling analysis and micronuclei induction in primary Chinese hamster lung cells exposed to tobacco particulate matter
Biological monitoring of bidi rollers with respect to genotoxic hazards of occupational tobacco exposure
Carcinogen metabolism and DNA adducts in human lung tissues as affected by tobacco smoking or metabolic phenotype: a case-control study on lung cancer patients
Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function
The effect of exposure to nicotine, carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke or cigarette smoke condensate on the mutagenicity of rat urine
Correlations between urinary nicotine or cotinine and urinary mutagenicity in smokers on controlled diets
Carcinogen hemoglobin adducts, urinary mutagenicity, and metabolic phenotype in active and passive cigarette smokers
Cigarette smoking induces formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, one of the oxidative DNA damages in human peripheral leukocytes
Cigarette smoke-induced DNA-damage: role of hydroquinone and catechol in the formation of the oxidative DNA-adduct, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine
Comparative genotoxicity testing of mainstream whole smoke from cigarettes which burn or heat tobacco
Comparative studies of the mutagenicity of urine from smokers and non-smokers on a controlled non-mutagenic diet
Differential effects of cigarette smoke condensate and its fractions on cultured normal and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells
Analysis of cytogenetic effects in bone-marrow cells of rats subchronically exposed to smoke from cigarettes which burn or only heat tobacco
Bronchial micronuclei as a marker of an early stage of carcinogenesis in the human tracheobronchial epithelium
Molecular dosimetry of DNA adducts and sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes treated with benzo[a]pyrene
Comparative studies on the genotoxic activity of mainstream smoke condensate from cigarettes which burn or only heat tobacco
Mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate, coke oven, and roofing tar in the Ames assay
Metabolic activation of organic extracts from diesel, coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke emissions in the Ames assay
Transplacental genotoxicity of a tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, in Syrian golden hamster
Increased chromosome fragility as a consequence of blood folate levels, smoking status, and coffee consumption
Preliminary molecular analysis of the TK locus in L5178Y large- and small-colony mouse lymphoma cell mutants
Studies on the ability of smoke from different types of cigarettes to induce DNA single-strand breaks in cultured human cells
Levels of mutagens in the urine of smokers of black and blond tobacco correlate with their risk of bladder cancer
Chronic smoking and brain gray matter changes: evidence from meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies
Effect of afobazole on genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke in the placenta and embryonic tissues of rats
Determination of toxic elements in different brands of cigarette by atomic absorption spectrometry using ultrasonic assisted acid digestion.
Chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in human populations exposed to the processing of electronics waste.
Blood nickel and chromium levels in association with smoking and occupational exposure among head and neck cancer patients in Tunisia
Cancer prevention interdisciplinary education program at Purdue University: overview and preliminary results.
Topographical study of O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase repair activity and N7-methylguanine levels in resected lung tissue
Apoptosis and necrosis: two different outcomes of cigarette smoke condensate-induced endothelial cell death
Smoke extracts and nicotine, but not tobacco extracts, potentiate firing and burst activity of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in mice.
C/EBPbeta-mediated transcriptional regulation of bcl-xl gene expression in human breast epithelial cells in response to cigarette smoke condensate.
The I,105V polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase P1, parental smoking and the risk for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate
Utility of urinary 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol levels to assess environmental carbaryl and naphthalene exposure in an epidemiology study
Cigarette smoke condensate-induced level of adenomatous polyposis coli blocks long-patch base excision repair in breast epithelial cells
A single nucleotide polymorphism in the p53 pathway interacts with gender, environmental stresses and tumor genetics to influence cancer in humans
Analysis of epidemiological cohort data on smoking effects and lung cancer with a multi-stage cancer model
A functional BRCA1 coding sequence genetic variant contributes to risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Relationship between TP53 tumour suppressor gene mutations and smoking-related bulky DNA adducts in a lung cancer study population from Hungary
Tobacco smoking and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a 16-year longitudinal population-based study.
Levels of prostaglandin E metabolite, the major urinary metabolite of prostaglandin E2, are increased in smokers
A role for fibroblasts in mediating the effects of tobacco-induced epithelial cell growth and invasion.
Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-α is induced in the setting of DNA damage and promotes pulmonary emphysema.
ATM activation accompanies histone H2AX phosphorylation in A549 cells upon exposure to tobacco smoke
In vitro assessment of tobacco smoke toxicity at the BBB: do antioxidant supplements have a protective role?
Effects of benzopyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) in vitro and of maternal smoking in vivo on micronuclei frequencies in fetal cord blood
The rate of nonallelic homologous recombination in males is highly variable, correlated between monozygotic twins and independent of age
N-acetyltransferase polymorphism and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: a pooled analysis of variations from 59 studies.
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