Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
H A Tourtelot


Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes.


Feb 1, 1982·Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation·K HelgelandJ Jonsen

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Air Pollutants, Environmental
Spatial Distribution
Occupational Diseases
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