Germinant Synergy Facilitates Clostridium difficile Spore Germination under Physiological Conditions

MSphere
Travis J KochanPhilip C Hanna

Abstract

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive obligate anaerobe that forms spores in order to survive for long periods in the unfavorable environment outside a host. C. difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile infection (CDI) arises after a patient treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics ingests infectious spores. The first step in C. difficile pathogenesis is the metabolic reactivation of dormant spores within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through a process known as germination. In this work, we aim to elucidate the specific conditions and the location within the GI tract that facilitate this process. Our data suggest that C. difficile germination occurs through a two-step biochemical process that is regulated by pH and bile salts, amino acids, and calcium present within the GI tract. Maximal germination occurs at a pH ranging from 6.5 to 8.5 in the terminal small intestine prior to bile salt and calcium reabsorption by the host. Germination can be initiated by lower concentrations of germinants when spores are incubated with a combination of bile salts, calcium, and amino acids, and this synergy is dependent on the availability of calcium. The synergy described here allows germinat...Continue Reading

References

Dec 10, 2003·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Peter Setlow
Jul 9, 2004·CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne·Susan M Poutanen, Andrew E Simor
Nov 18, 2005·Journal of Bacteriology·Nathan Fisher, Philip Hanna
Aug 16, 2006·Journal of Applied Microbiology·A Moir
Nov 24, 2006·Journal of Bacteriology·Patricia L PelczarPeter Setlow
Feb 7, 2008·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Dale N GerdingRobert C Owens
Feb 5, 2008·Journal of Bacteriology·Joseph A Sorg, Abraham L Sonenshein
Dec 9, 2008·Journal of Bacteriology·Joseph A Sorg, Abraham L Sonenshein
Jan 6, 2009·Journal of Applied Microbiology·L J WheeldonP A Lambert
Jun 22, 2010·Journal of Bacteriology·Norma RamirezErnesto Abel-Santos
Mar 21, 2012·Journal of Hospital Medicine : an Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine·Erik Dubberke
May 13, 2014·Trends in Microbiology·Daniel Paredes-SabjaJoseph A Sorg
Dec 3, 2014·Clinics in Laboratory Medicine·Daniel E FreedbergJulian A Abrams
Dec 24, 2014·Infection and Immunity·Mark J KoenigsknechtVincent B Young
Nov 11, 2015·Journal of General Internal Medicine·Matt PappasSandeep Vijan
Jul 30, 2016·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·Kerrie A DaviesUNKNOWN EUCLID study group
Aug 11, 2016·Methods in Molecular Biology·Adrianne N Edwards, Shonna M McBride
May 11, 2017·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Ritu ShresthaJoseph A Sorg
Jul 13, 2017·Annual Review of Microbiology·Peter SetlowYong-Qing Li
Jul 14, 2017·PLoS Pathogens·Travis J KochanPhilip C Hanna
Nov 1, 2017·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Anca TrifanLucian Boiculese
May 16, 2018·Journal of Bacteriology·Travis J KochanPhilip C Hanna

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

Dec 8, 2019·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Daniela Wetzel, Shonna M McBride
Apr 10, 2020·PLoS Pathogens·Robert W P Glowacki, Eric C Martens
Feb 15, 2019·Frontiers in Microbiology·Simona IacobLuminita Monica Luminos
Mar 31, 2019·Anaerobe·Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A Sorg
Jul 3, 2021·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Taif ShahXueshan Xia
Nov 13, 2019·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·S YuilleM C Tedford
Aug 28, 2021·Antibiotics·Pei-Wen WangDar-Bin Shieh

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Antifungals

An antifungal, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Discover the latest research on antifungals here.

Antifungals (ASM)

An antifungal, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Discover the latest research on antifungals here.