Glioblastoma multiforme: Pathogenesis and treatment

Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Constantinos E Alifieris, Dimitrios T Trafalis

Abstract

Each year, about 5-6 cases out of 100,000 people are diagnosed with primary malignant brain tumors, of which about 80% are malignant gliomas (MGs). Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for more than half of MG cases. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite current multimodality treatment efforts including maximal surgical resection if feasible, followed by a combination of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, the median survival is short: only about 15months. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of these tumors has presented opportunities for newer therapies to evolve and an expectation of better control of this disease. Lately, efforts have been made to investigate tumor resistance, which results from complex alternate signaling pathways, the existence of glioma stem-cells, the influence of the blood-brain barrier as well as the expression of 0(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. In this paper, we review up-to-date information on MGs treatment including current approaches, novel drug-delivering strategies, molecular targeted agents and immunomodulative treatments, and discuss future treatment perspectives.

References

May 5, 1993·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Walter J CurranR E Krisch
May 13, 1998·Journal of Clinical Pathology·T TsuzukiT Hayakawa
Nov 9, 2000·The New England Journal of Medicine·M EstellerJames Herman
Sep 12, 2001·Neuro-oncology·Paul Kleihues, Hiroko Ohgaki
Oct 3, 2002·Neuro-oncology·Margaret WrenschMitchel S Berger
Nov 26, 2003·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Jeremy N RichHenry S Friedman
Apr 20, 2004·Cancer Cell·Matthew C FranklinMark X Sliwkowski
May 4, 2004·The Lancet Oncology·Marion Harris
May 15, 2004·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Arnab ChakravartiJay S Loeffler
Nov 2, 2004·Acta Neuropathologica·Christiane B KnobbeGuido Reifenberger
Dec 31, 2004·Glia·Stephanie BalcaitisThomas Möller
Mar 11, 2005·The New England Journal of Medicine·Monika HegiRoger Stupp
Apr 2, 2005·Nature Reviews. Cancer·Michael DeanSusan Bates
Jun 16, 2005·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Daphne A Haas-KoganDavid Stokoe
Jun 17, 2005·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Bachchu LalJohn Laterra
Jul 7, 2005·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Evanthia GalanisNorth Central Cancer Treatment Group
Jul 9, 2005·The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics·Amit Arora, Eric M Scholar
Jul 14, 2005·Investigational New Drugs·Susan M ChangNorth American Brain Tumor Consortium and the National Cancer Institute
Jul 22, 2005·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Aparna Mani, Edward P Gelmann
Sep 24, 2005·Cell Cycle·Daphne A Haas-KoganDavid Stokoe
Sep 30, 2005·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Jennifer A QuinnHenry S Friedman
Nov 12, 2005·The New England Journal of Medicine·Ingo K MellinghoffPaul S Mischel
Nov 23, 2005·Oncology·Napoleone Ferrara
Dec 20, 2005·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·David A ReardonHenry S Friedman
Feb 10, 2006·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·David A ReardonJeremy N Rich
Mar 1, 2006·Neurology·F SchmidtMichael Weller
Mar 10, 2006·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Nicholas ButowskiSusan M Chang
May 16, 2006·Cancer Cell·Qi-Wen FanWilliam A Weiss
Jul 5, 2006·Molecular Cancer Therapeutics·Lorena de la PeñaPhilip J Tofilon
Jul 5, 2006·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Christopher E PelloskiKenneth Aldape
Aug 1, 2006·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Timothy F CloughesyMichael D Prados
Aug 8, 2006·Seminars in Oncology·John Mendelsohn, Jose Baselga
Aug 18, 2006·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Patrick Y WenMichael D Prados
Aug 26, 2006·Nature Clinical Practice. Neurology·Judith A SchwartzbaumMargaret Wrensch
Oct 26, 2006·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Tobias MartensKatrin Lamszus
Jan 2, 2007·Current Biology : CB·Virginie ClementAriel Ruiz i Altaba
Apr 6, 2007·Occupational and Environmental Medicine·Lennart HardellL Lloyd Morgan
May 24, 2007·Cancer·Sith SathornsumeteeJeremy N Rich
Jul 10, 2007·Acta Neuropathologica·David N LouisPaul Kleihues
Jul 24, 2007·Nature Reviews. Neuroscience·Rakesh K JainTracy Batchelor
Aug 9, 2007·European Neuropsychopharmacology : the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology·Kristian Linnet, Thomas Broeng Ejsing
Sep 13, 2007·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Hong JiangJuan Fueyo
Oct 30, 2007·Neurologic Clinics·James L FisherJoseph L Wiemels
Nov 3, 2007·Genes & Development·Frank B FurnariWebster K Cavenee
Nov 28, 2007·Annual Review of Pathology·David N Louis
Dec 7, 2007·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Howard A FineCheryl Royce
Jun 3, 2008·International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics·Jan DrappatzPatrick Y Wen
Jul 29, 2008·Journal of Neuro-oncology·Camilo E FadulJ Marc Pipas
Aug 2, 2008·The New England Journal of Medicine·Patrick Y Wen, Santosh Kesari
Aug 5, 2008·Cancer Research·Shideng BaoJeremy N Rich
Aug 19, 2008·Neuro-oncology·Candelaria Gomez-ManzanoW K Alfred Yung
Aug 30, 2008·Neuro-oncology·Robert LustigNew Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy CNS Consortium
Sep 2, 2008·Current Opinion in Neurobiology·Ralf S Schmid, Patricia F Maness
Sep 18, 2008·Cancer Investigation·Giselle Pinto de FariaRaquel Ciuvalschi Maia
Oct 1, 2008·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Eric RaymondEuropean Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study
Oct 24, 2008·The New England Journal of Medicine·Bruce R Bistrian
Nov 5, 2008·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·David A ReardonLouis Nabors
Dec 31, 2008·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Teri N KreislHoward A Fine
Feb 5, 2009·Molecular Cancer Therapeutics·Yunqing LiRoger Abounader
Feb 11, 2009·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Jennifer A QuinnHenry S Friedman
Feb 11, 2009·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Martin J van den BentThierry Gorlia
Mar 25, 2009·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Evanthia GalanisJan Buckner
May 21, 2009·Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs·Hui K GanJennifer J Knox
Jun 6, 2009·Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology·Bart NeynsJacques De Grève
Jun 10, 2009·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Jennifer ClarkeLauren Abrey
Jun 23, 2009·Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology·J Lee VillanoLinda R Bressler
Jun 30, 2009·Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics·Duane A Mitchell, John H Sampson
Jun 30, 2009·Journal of Neuro-oncology·David A ReardonHenry S Friedman
Jul 29, 2009·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Stuart A GrossmanHoward A Fine
Aug 12, 2009·Future Oncology·Christopher G Wood, Peter Mulders
Sep 2, 2009·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Henry S FriedmanTimothy F Cloughesy
Sep 17, 2009·BioDrugs : Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy·Jerry Y Hsu, Heather A Wakelee
Oct 1, 2009·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Evangelia RazisGeorge Fountzilas
Oct 10, 2009·Journal of Immunotherapy·Robert Owen DillmanMadeline Carol DePriest
Dec 1, 2009·European Journal of Cancer : Official Journal for European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) [and] European Association for Cancer Research (EACR)·Alba A BrandesMartin J van den Bent
Dec 18, 2009·Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry·Fadila GuessousRoger Abounader
Dec 24, 2009·Radiation Oncology·James W WelshBaldassarre Stea
Feb 4, 2010·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Wolfgang WickHoward A Fine
Feb 13, 2010·Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets·Fei YeMing-Jun Cai
Feb 13, 2010·Neuro-oncology·Teri N KreislHoward A Fine
Mar 10, 2010·Journal of Neuro-oncology·Surasak PhuphanichJeffrey J Olson
Apr 29, 2010·Current Oncology Reports·Mustafa Khasraw, Andrew B Lassman
May 5, 2010·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Roger StuppMichael Weller
May 11, 2010·Cell Stem Cell·Justin D LathiaJeremy N Rich
May 12, 2010·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Tracy BatchelorRakesh K Jain
May 14, 2010·Science Translational Medicine·E D MichelakisK Petruk
Jun 29, 2010·Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology·Roger StuppESMO Guidelines Working Group
Jul 16, 2010·Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine·Ian M BuchananKevin Camphausen
Jul 20, 2010·International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics·T G JohnsAndrew M Scott
Sep 3, 2010·International Journal of Oncology·Sivan TzadokJardena Nordenberg
Sep 8, 2010·Targeted Oncology·Ghazaleh TabatabaiRoger Stupp
Oct 6, 2010·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Jann N SarkariaJan Buckner
Oct 6, 2010·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·John H SampsonDarell D Bigner
Oct 12, 2010·International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics·Phioanh L NghiemphuNorth American Brain Tumor Consortium
Oct 16, 2010·Cancer Letters·Manmeet S AhluwaliaCandece L Gladson
Nov 3, 2010·International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics·Emma C FieldsChanghu Chen
Nov 23, 2010·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Dongchang ZhaoBehnam Badie
Dec 8, 2010·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Albert LaiTimothy F Cloughesy
Dec 15, 2010·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Mizuhiko TerasakiKyogo Itoh
Dec 31, 2010·Glia·John F de Groot, Harald Sontheimer
Jan 14, 2011·Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy·Yong-Song Guan, Qing He
Jan 18, 2011·Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry·Joshua P SasineLynn G Feun
Feb 18, 2011·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Robert MallonIrwin Hollander
Feb 24, 2011·Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy·Manmeet S Ahluwalia
Mar 30, 2011·Glia·Nikki A CharlesHelmut Kettenmann
May 25, 2011·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·John F de GrootPatrick Y Wen
May 31, 2011·Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology·Peter HauUlrich Bogdahn
Jun 4, 2011·Neuro-oncology·Wolfgang WickMichael Platten
Jun 7, 2011·Life Sciences·Tercia Rodrigues AlvesVivaldo Moura Neto
Jun 23, 2011·Expert Review of Vaccines·Alfred P SeeMichael Lim
Jun 29, 2011·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Maciej S Lesniak
Jul 12, 2011·Journal of Neuro-oncology·David A ReardonHenry S Friedman
Jul 26, 2011·Neuro-oncology·T J MacDonaldC M Kramm
Aug 10, 2011·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Maryam FouladiRichard J Gilbertson
Aug 11, 2011·Current Pharmaceutical Design·Sabina Berezowska, Jürgen Schlegel
Nov 1, 2011·Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology·David A ReardonMichael A Vogelbaum
Nov 9, 2011·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Dimpy KoulW K Alfred Yung
Nov 11, 2011·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Pietro FerruzziAnnette Bakker
Nov 30, 2011·Current Molecular Pharmacology·Jihong ZhangTracey D Bradshaw
Dec 1, 2011·Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology·J Rafael Sierra, Ming-Sound Tsao
Dec 14, 2011·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Andrew S ChiA John Iafrate
Dec 24, 2011·Cancer Science·Wenzhuo ZhuangZhongqin Liang
Dec 29, 2011·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Qian XieGeorge F Vande Woude
Jan 5, 2012·Current Medicinal Chemistry·S De FazioG De Sarro
Feb 9, 2012·Expert Review of Vaccines·Catherine A Del VecchioAlbert J Wong
Feb 11, 2012·The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics·Tianli WangWilliam F Elmquist
Feb 22, 2012·Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology·Gavin ChoySanjeev Redkar
Mar 13, 2012·Journal of Neuro-oncology·David A ReardonHenry S Friedman
Mar 24, 2012·Neurosurgery Clinics of North America·Seema Nagpal
Mar 24, 2012·Neurosurgery Clinics of North America·Jose A Carrillo, Claudia A Munoz
Apr 5, 2012·Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis·Karen SheppardWayne A Phillips
Apr 20, 2012·Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry·Miguel Muñoz, Rafael Coveñas
Apr 21, 2012·Cancer·Louis NaborsNew Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy (NABTT) Central Nervous System Consortium
Jun 8, 2012·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Gaspar J KitangeJann N Sarkaria
Jun 12, 2012·European Journal of Neurology : the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies·Chao ChenShenhong Wu
Jul 31, 2012·Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology·Motoo NaganeMasao Matsutani
Aug 28, 2012·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Eudocia Q LeePatrick Y Wen
Sep 6, 2012·Neurochemistry International·Janka Held-FeindtSusanne Sebens
Oct 10, 2012·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Hideto KosoNancy A Jenkins
Oct 24, 2012·American Journal of Hematology·Elias Jabbour, Hagop Kantarjian
Oct 27, 2012·Neuro-oncology·Teri N KreislHoward A Fine
Nov 21, 2012·PloS One·Steven N QuayleLynda Chin
Dec 5, 2012·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Hiroko Ohgaki, Paul Kleihues
Jan 8, 2013·Journal of Neurology·Vasilios KaravasilisGeorge Fountzilas
Jan 19, 2013·Neuro-oncology·David M PeereboomNew Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy Consortium
Jan 26, 2013·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Jan DrappatzPatrick Y Wen
Feb 1, 2013·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·David A ReardonJohann de Bono
Feb 19, 2013·Immunotherapy·Christopher JacksonMichael Lim
Mar 5, 2013·PloS One·Deborah HuveldtPanos Z Anastasiadis
Apr 10, 2013·European Journal of Cancer : Official Journal for European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) [and] European Association for Cancer Research (EACR)·Anne DucassouElizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal
May 7, 2013·Investigational New Drugs·Panagiotis J VlachostergiosChristos N Papandreou
Aug 2, 2013·Tumour Biology : the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine·Hong-Bin ChengZhi Wang
Aug 3, 2013·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Anja WielandBjörn Scheffler
Sep 11, 2013·Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine·Fuad El Rassi, Hanna Jean Khoury
Sep 14, 2013·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Beatrice GiniPaul S Mischel
Sep 18, 2013·Clinical & Translational Oncology : Official Publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico·M Mendiburu-EliçabeM Izquierdo
Sep 24, 2013·Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia·Bryan D ChoiJohn H Sampson
Oct 22, 2013·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Phyllis LangoneProbal Banerjee
Oct 29, 2013·Neurologia Medico-chirurgica·Manabu OnishiIsao Date
Jan 1, 2011·Cancers·Sabrina FacchinoGilbert Bernier
Feb 21, 2014·The New England Journal of Medicine·Mark R GilbertMinesh P Mehta
May 31, 2014·Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN·Angel A AlvarezKiminobu Sugaya
Jun 15, 2014·American Journal of Clinical Dermatology·Chante KarimkhaniRobert P Dellavalle
Jul 6, 2014·Surgical Neurology International·Taylor A WilsonDavid H Harter
Jul 24, 2014·Molecular Cancer Therapeutics·Jessian L MunozPranela Rameshwar
Aug 8, 2014·Oncoimmunology·Smita K NairDuane A Mitchell

Citations

Feb 20, 2016·Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology·Dimitrios T TrafalisNikolaos Sitaras
Aug 28, 2015·International Journal of Molecular Medicine·Rong-Jing ZhouWen-Hua Wang
Feb 6, 2016·Tumour Biology : the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine·Donghui JuShaoshan Hu
Jul 8, 2015·Tumour Biology : the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine·Ning WuXiukun Lin
Apr 18, 2016·Neurosurgical Review·Nancy Ann Oberheim BushMitchel S Berger
Jul 28, 2016·Infectious Agents and Cancer·Cheng-Te Major LinSteven Jacobson
Jun 6, 2016·Journal of Molecular Medicine : Official Organ of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher Und Ärzte·Efthalia AngelopoulouAthanasios G Papavassiliou
Jun 6, 2016·Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine·Paula OfekRonit Satchi-Fainaro
Sep 18, 2016·Cell Calcium·Sophie LepannetierPhilippe Gailly
Sep 27, 2016·Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery·Yang YuanMao Qing
Sep 27, 2016·Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing·Mary Elizabeth Davis
Oct 22, 2016·Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience·Chao ShangYixue Xue
Oct 31, 2016·Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society·Shiqian GaoXuesi Chen
Jun 3, 2017·Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy·Nathalia Nossi DavanzoAntônio Cláudio Tedesco
Nov 11, 2017·Neuro-oncology·Seamus CaragherAtique U Ahmed
Feb 27, 2018·Cancer Medicine·Isadora F G SenaAlexander Birbrair
Sep 28, 2017·Nanomedicine·Pablo Játiva, Valentín Ceña
Oct 2, 2017·Molecular Neurobiology·Annielle Mendes Brito da SilvaManoel Arcisio-Miranda
Aug 30, 2018·Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine·Hongmei LiuHairong Zheng
Aug 4, 2018·Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP·Bracha ShraibmanArie Admon
Jan 19, 2019·Nanomaterials·Breanne CafferyAngela A Alexander-Bryant
Apr 26, 2018·Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry·Miguel Muñoz, Rafael Coveñas
Jun 4, 2019·Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP·Bracha ShraibmanArie Admon
Jun 13, 2019·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·Bhaskar Basu, Mrinal K Ghosh
Jul 3, 2019·Pharmaceutical Research·Edilson Ribeiro de Oliveira JuniorEliana Martins Lima
Sep 25, 2019·Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry·Chiara CioniPasquale Annunziata
Jan 8, 2020·FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology·Hongchao PanMelitta Schachner
Feb 12, 2020·Genes·Anne-Marie GarrettChristopher McConville
Oct 28, 2016·MedChemComm·Calabrese GianpieroTsibouklis John
Nov 16, 2019·Drug Delivery and Translational Research·Lynn JenaHelen McCarthy
May 12, 2018·International Journal of Molecular Medicine·Igor BryukhovetskiyYuri Khotimchenko
Jul 22, 2020·Chemical Communications : Chem Comm·Meiqing LiLijing Fang
Apr 14, 2020·Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology : the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society·Christopher R DermarkarianAndrew G Lee
Sep 4, 2020·Biology Open·Marta PortelaSergio Casas-Tintó
Mar 21, 2017·BioMed Research International·Wojciech SzopaWojciech Kaspera
May 14, 2017·Journal of Neuro-oncology·Andrea O FontanaMichael Reinert
Jun 16, 2018·Brain Sciences·Francesca GrazianoDomenico Gerardo Iacopino
Jul 19, 2018·Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR·Jia ShenMeichun Hu
Dec 12, 2018·Cancer Biomarkers : Section a of Disease Markers·Huiping ZhangHongtao Guo
Jul 8, 2019·Journal of Neuro-oncology·P A ChenChristopher Power
Sep 24, 2019·Future Medicinal Chemistry·Raul OrtizJose Prados
Dec 12, 2019·Frontiers in Microbiology·Kar Yan Su, Vinod R M T Balasubramaniam
Mar 3, 2020·Current Pharmaceutical Design·Manish AdhikariMichael Keidar
Nov 26, 2015·Journal of Neuro-oncology·Richard E KastMiguel Muñoz
Jun 20, 2017·International Journal of Oncology·Xue WangLiangxue Zhou
Apr 5, 2018·Frontiers in Physiology·Elif Ozdemir-KaynakOzlem Yesil-Celiktas
Nov 27, 2018·Radiation and Environmental Biophysics·Takuya KanemitsuToshihiko Kuroiwa
Sep 30, 2018·Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN·Liang YangZongmao Zhao
Oct 2, 2018·Frontiers in Pharmacology·Edouard Alphandéry
Mar 1, 2019·Cancers·Giuseppina D'AlessandroCristina Limatola
Mar 6, 2019·Cancers·Riccardo Bazzoni, Angela Bentivegna
Aug 28, 2019·Genes·Anna MichaelidesováMartina Zíková
Apr 16, 2020·Cancers·Vilashini RajaratnamShama Parveen Mirza
Jun 25, 2020·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Wei-Hsun WangJeng-Jong Hwang
Feb 9, 2017·Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology·Jia-Bin WangZhi-Guo Lin
Sep 26, 2017·Oncology Letters·Xuehua XiongXiaochuan Sun
Apr 25, 2018·Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis·Jinxu ZhouYuhai Wang
Apr 14, 2018·BioMed Research International·Fabliha Ahmed ChowdhuryMuhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed
Nov 15, 2018·Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology·Shengnan DuWilliam A Maltese
Sep 7, 2019·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Sonja DragojevicDrazen Raucher
Jan 28, 2018·Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine·Zhenhuan SongTianfeng Chen
Jul 8, 2020·Molecular Neurobiology·Johann Mar GudbergssonThomas Lars Andresen
May 6, 2020·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Ehsan SamieiMohsen Akbari
Dec 28, 2015·Nanomaterials·Shanshan WangRongqin Huang
Sep 8, 2018·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Celeste Caruso BavisottoClaudia Campanella
Apr 9, 2019·The Journal of Pathology·Tània CemeliEloi Garí
Oct 30, 2020·Cancers·Seamus CaragherAtique U Ahmed
Nov 12, 2020·Nature Communications·Jason V GregoryJoerg Lahann
Oct 14, 2020·Cell Biology International·Precilla S DaisyT S Anitha
Apr 15, 2018·Molecular Cancer Therapeutics·Maire F OsbornAnastasia Khvorova
Jan 1, 2021·Frontiers in Pharmacology·Jingwei WanMingli Liu
Jan 12, 2021·Current Medical Science·Fahad Hassan ShahBashir Ahmad
Jan 25, 2021·Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews·Taskeen Iqbal JanjuaAmirali Popat
Jan 29, 2021·The International Journal of Neuroscience·Zhongbao Wu
Dec 19, 2020·Open Medicine·Guo-Hua WangShuai Cheng
Jun 1, 2019·Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP·Bracha ShraibmanArie Admon
Jan 11, 2020·Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society·Liron L IsraelJulia Y Ljubimova
Jan 23, 2021·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Hongliang WangYuling Liu
Nov 1, 2018·Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP·Bracha ShraibmanArie Admon
Oct 16, 2020·Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents·Indranil Mondal, Ritu Kulshreshtha
Mar 2, 2021·Frontiers in Oncology·Hai SongXiangpeng Wang
Nov 30, 2020·Drug Discovery Today·Rebecca KassubekHeiko G Niessen
Mar 17, 2021·Cell Death & Disease·Xiaoyu XuZeper Abliz
Sep 9, 2020·Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society·Gi Doo ChaDae-Hyeong Kim
Apr 4, 2021·Cells·Zoltán KrabothBernadette Kalman

Related Concepts

Metazoa
Antineoplastic Chemotherapy Protocols
Blood - Brain Barrier Anatomy
Brain Tumor, Recurrent
Glioblastoma Multiforme
Genetic Therapy, Somatic
Stem Cell Transplant
Brain
Malignant Neoplasms
Combined Modality Therapy

Related Feeds

Cell Signaling by Tyrosine Kinases

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. RTKs have been shown not only to be key regulators of normal cellular processes but also to have a critical role in the development and progression of many types of cancer. Discover the latest research on cell signaling and RTK here.

Angiogenesis Inhibitors to Treat Cancer

Cancer treatments including angiogenesis inhibitors prevent tumor cells from receiving nutrients and oxygen. Here is the latest research on angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

Autophagy & Metabolism

Autophagy preserves the health of cells and tissues by replacing outdated and damaged cellular components with fresh ones. In starvation, it provides an internal source of nutrients for energy generation and, thus, survival. A powerful promoter of metabolic homeostasis at both the cellular and whole-animal level, autophagy prevents degenerative diseases. It does have a downside, however--cancer cells exploit it to survive in nutrient-poor tumors.

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterized by severe weight loss and secondary problems associated with malnutrition. Here is the latest research on AN.

Adhesion Molecules in Health and Disease

Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here.

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis

Cancer Epigenetics and Senescence (Keystone)

Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. The epigenetic changes may be involved in regulating senescence in cancer cells. This feed captures the latest research on cancer epigenetics and senescence.

Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes

This feed focuses on a rare genetic condition called Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes, which are characterized by autoantibodies against multiple endocrine organs. This can lead to Type I Diabetes.

Autophagy & Model Organisms

Autophagy is a cellular process that allows degradation by the lysosome of cytoplasmic components such as proteins or organelles. Here is the latest research on autophagy & model organisms

Cancer Vaccines

Cancer vaccines are vaccines that either treat existing cancer or prevent development of a cancer.

Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathies

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathies, also called polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGASs), or polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes(PASs), are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organ, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. Discover the latest research on autoimmune polyendocrinopathies here.

Blood Brain Barrier

The blood brain barrier is a border that separates blood from cerebrospinal fluid. Discover the latest search on this highly selective semipermeable membrane here.

Cancer Epigenetics

Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. The epigenetic changes may or may not provide advantages for the cancer cells. Here is the latest research on cancer epigenetics.

Parkinson's Disease & Autophagy (MDS)

Autophagy leads to degradation of damaged proteins and organelles by the lysosome. Impaired autophagy has been implicated in several diseases. Here is the role of autophagy in Parkinson’s disease.

Autophagy & Disease

Autophagy is an important cellular process for normal physiology and both elevated and decreased levels of autophagy are associated with disease. Here is the latest research.

Avian Influenza: Innate Immune Adjuvant

Adjuvants systems that are added to vaccines against avian influenza have be explored to enhance the innate immune system response against the virus. Here is the latest research on avian influenza and the innate immune adjuvant.

Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor. It contains a population of tumor initiating stem cell-like cells known as cancer stem cells. Investigations are ongoing into these cancer stem cells found in these solid tumors which are highly resistance to treatment. Here is the latest research on cancer stem cells in glioblastoma.

Avian Influenza: Innate Immune Adjuvant (ASM)

Adjuvants systems that are added to vaccines against avian influenza have be explored to enhance the innate immune system response against the virus. Here is the latest research on avian influenza and the innate immune adjuvant.

AKT Pathway

This feed focuses on the AKT serine/threonine kinase, which is an important signaling pathway involved in processes such as glucose metabolism and cell survival.

Arterial-Venous in Development & Disease

Arterial-venous development may play a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. Here is the latest research.

CREs: Gene & Cell Therapy

Gene and cell therapy advances have shown promising outcomes for several diseases. The role of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is crucial in the design of gene therapy vectors. Here is the latest research on CREs in gene and cell therapy.

Antisense Oligonucleotides: ND

This feed focuses on antisense oligonucleotide therapies such as Inotersen, Nusinursen, and Patisiran, in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Apoptosis in Cancer

Apoptosis is an important mechanism in cancer. By evading apoptosis, tumors can continue to grow without regulation and metastasize systemically. Many therapies are evaluating the use of pro-apoptotic activation to eliminate cancer growth. Here is the latest research on apoptosis in cancer.

Cell Signaling & Cancer Epigenetics (Keystone)

Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. This feed covers the latest research on signaling and epigenetics in cell growth and cancer.

Cancer Epigenetics & Methyl-CpG (Keystone)

Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. Here is the latest research on cancer epigenetics and methyl-CpG binding proteins including ZBTB38.

Cancer Epigenetics & Metabolism (Keystone)

Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. The epigenetic changes may or may not provide advantages for the cancer cells. This feed focuses on the relationship between cell metabolism, epigenetics and tumor differentiation.

Cancer Metabolism

In order for cancer cells to maintain rapid, uncontrolled cell proliferation, they must acquire a source of energy. Cancer cells acquire metabolic energy from their surrounding environment and utilize the host cell nutrients to do so. Here is the latest research on cancer metabolism.

Blood Brain Barrier Regulation in Health & Disease

The blood brain barrier is essential in regulating the movement of molecules and substances in and out of the brain. Disruption to the blood brain barrier and changes in permeability allow pathogens and inflammatory molecules to cross the barrier and may play a part in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research in this field.

Astrocytes

Astrocytes are glial cells that support the blood-brain barrier, facilitate neurotransmission, provide nutrients to neurons, and help repair damaged nervous tissues. Here is the latest research.

Blood Brain Barrier Chips

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is comprised of endothelial cells that regulate the influx and outflux of plasma concentrations. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow scientists to model diseases and mechanisms such as the passage of therapeutic antibodies across the BBB. Discover the latest research on BBB chips here.

Adult Stem Cells

Adult stem cells reside in unique niches that provide vital cues for their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. They hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration as a novel therapeutic strategies. Here is the latest research.

Cancer Epigenetics (Keystone)

Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. The epigenetic changes may or may not provide advantages for the cancer cells. Here is the latest research on cancer epigenetics.

Related Papers

Neurology Research International
Fumiharu OhkaToshihiko Wakabayashi
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Warren Mason
American Journal of Cancer Research
Priya U KumthekarSamir V Sejpal
Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Allison QuickMinesh P Mehta
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved