Global and regional causes of death

British Medical Bulletin
Colin D MathersDoris Ma Fat


Assessing the causes of death across all regions of the world requires a framework for integrating, and analysing, the fragmentary information that is available on numbers of deaths and their cause distributions. This paper provides an overview of the met and methods used by the World Health Organization to develop global-, regional- and country-level estimates of mortality for a comprehensive set of causes, and provides an overview of global and regional levels and patterns of causes of death for the year 2004. The paper also examines some of the data gaps, uncertainties and limitations in the resulting mortality estimates. Deaths for 136 disease and injury causes were estimated from available death registration data (111 countries), sample death registration data (India and China), and for the remaining countries from census and survey information, and cause-of-death models. Population-based epidemiological studies and notifications systems also contributed to estimating mortality for 21 of these causes (representing 28% of deaths globally, 58% in Africa). Ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are the leading causes of death, followed by lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and dia...Continue Reading


Jun 1, 1986·International Journal of Epidemiology·T HakulinenT Nakada
Jun 19, 2004·Population Studies·Judith Banister, Kenneth Hill
Mar 9, 2005·Lancet·Joy E LawnLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team
Mar 17, 2005·Population Health Metrics·Gonghuan YangAlan D Lopez
Mar 30, 2005·Lancet·Jennifer BryceWHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group
Dec 16, 2005·PLoS Medicine·Prabhat JhaRGI-CGHR Prospective Study Collaborators
Mar 25, 2006·International Journal of Epidemiology·Joy E LawnSimon N Cousens
Apr 4, 2006·Bulletin of the World Health Organization·Michel Garenne, Vincent Fauveau
Apr 4, 2006·Bulletin of the World Health Organization·Martin AdjuikFred Binka
Apr 4, 2006·Bulletin of the World Health Organization·Viroj TangcharoensathienSuwit Wibulpholprasert
Apr 28, 2006·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·Glyn ChapmanTheo Vos
Apr 4, 2007·European Journal of Public Health·Seval AkgünAlan D Lopez
Sep 5, 2007·Bulletin of the World Health Organization·Frank BaidenGonghuan Yang
Sep 5, 2007·Bulletin of the World Health Organization·Ardeshir KhosraviAlan D Lopez
Nov 22, 2007·Lancet·Prasanta MahapatraMonitoring Vital Events
Nov 23, 2007·PLoS Medicine·Christopher J L MurrayGonghuan Yang
Jan 11, 2008·The New England Journal of Medicine·Iraq Family Health Survey Study GroupColin D Mathers
Feb 15, 2008·The New England Journal of Medicine·Prabhat JhaRGI-CGHR Investigators


Aug 7, 2013·Amino Acids·Keith RobertsonFrancesca Paradisi
Mar 1, 2012·Quality of Life Research : an International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation·Gabrielle PucciPedro C Hallal
Jun 2, 2011·Journal of Urban Health : Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine·Abdhalah Kasiira ZirabaEliya Msiyaphazi Zulu
Feb 23, 2013·Molecular Neurobiology·Anuradha KalaniNeetu Tyagi
Apr 11, 2013·Journal of Nuclear Cardiology : Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology·Ahmed AljizeeriBenjamin J W Chow
Jan 20, 2010·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Yik-Ying TeoDominic P Kwiatkowski
Jul 27, 2012·The New England Journal of Medicine·Richard P WenzelMichael B Edmond
Jul 19, 2012·The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine : Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy·Xuedong AnCharlie Changli Xue
May 7, 2013·Journal of Tropical Pediatrics·David M GordonMehretie Kokeb
Dec 24, 2010·Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine·Wan C Tan
Oct 6, 2010·Respirology : Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology·Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Arthur William Musk
Oct 19, 2011·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Deepti MalhotraShyam Biswal
Nov 21, 2012·CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne·Martin Dawes
Aug 7, 2012·International Journal of General Medicine·Dominique HangeCalle Bengtsson
Jul 30, 2011·Future Cardiology·Jonathan W Waks, Benjamin M Scirica
Nov 1, 2012·Sensors·Akkarapol Sa-NgasoongsongSatish T S Bukkapatnam
Dec 24, 2013·Global Health Action·Dorean NabukaluMarie-Louise Newell
Nov 29, 2012·Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice·Sachin GuptaNguyen Phuong Hoa
Aug 15, 2014·The Pan African Medical Journal·Charles Ukachukwu OsujiEmeka Godwin Omejua
Feb 21, 2014·Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice·O J Olarinde, O Y Olatunji
Feb 8, 2013·Medical Physics·Josef LichtingerJutta Schöpfer
Jan 1, 2014·Revue D'épidémiologie Et De Santé Publique·F Mbutiwi Ikwa NdolP Makaula
Jan 26, 2013·Injury Prevention : Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention·Luis Manuel Rosa Sosa, Junaid Ahmad Bhatti
Apr 15, 2014·Heart, Lung & Circulation·Ali Sheikh Md SayedJun Peng
May 15, 2013·Journal of the Neurological Sciences·Guodong XiaoYongjun Cao
Mar 14, 2014·Current HIV/AIDS Reports·J Peter Figueroa
Jun 3, 2014·BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine·Lixing ZhuangLiming Lu
Jun 7, 2014·Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering·Nicholas J DurrDaryl Lim
Nov 8, 2011·Annual Review of Medicine·Gari D Clifford, David Clifton
Apr 5, 2011·International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion·Junaid Ahmad BhattiJunaid Abdul Razzak
Jun 30, 2011·Cardiovascular Journal of Africa·W F Ferris, N J Crowther
Oct 17, 2015·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Liang-Chung HuangSu-Shun Lo
Jul 24, 2014·Cells·Ashley M Fuller, Li Qian
Feb 24, 2016·The American Journal of Medicine·Sean P HeffronSripal Bangalore
Jan 8, 2016·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Jane TooherAnnemarie Hennessy
Mar 5, 2016·Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM·Shiao DingJu Mei
Dec 1, 2015·Journal of Neurochemistry·Lei LiHongliang Li
Apr 23, 2013·Paediatric Respiratory Reviews·Jürg Hammer
Jul 4, 2012·Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases : the Official Journal of National Stroke Association·Jose G RomanoRalph L Sacco
Dec 27, 2015·Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases : the Official Journal of National Stroke Association·Erkan KöklüGörkem Kuş
Nov 10, 2015·Prehospital and Disaster Medicine·Adam R AluisioChristina Bloem
Sep 20, 2015·Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology·C E HerronJoseph W Polli
Sep 22, 2012·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·Hong ZhouYan Wang
Sep 22, 2010·Journal of Cellular Physiology·Scott K ParksJacques Pouyssegur
May 15, 2013·Proteomics. Clinical Applications·Onno B BleijerveldDominique P V de Kleijn
Sep 5, 2012·Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines·Theresa S BetancourtNathan Hansen
Jan 22, 2013·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Liliane ChatenoudCarlo La Vecchia
Sep 28, 2012·International Journal of Stroke : Official Journal of the International Stroke Society·Damian G HoyAye Moe Moe Lwin
Jun 29, 2011·Journal of Advanced Nursing·Therese S Richmond, Leanne M Aitken
Sep 5, 2012·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·Menard ChihanaNeil French
Aug 25, 2010·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·Shabbar JaffarAlex Coutinho
Apr 24, 2014·Journal of Nursing Scholarship : an Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing·Pi-Ling ChouChang-Chiao Hung
Mar 13, 2014·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·Javeria S QureshiAnthony G Charles
Jul 22, 2014·Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine·Torben K BeckerGlobal Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) Group
Nov 30, 2012·Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine·Jürgen EndresArnd Dörfler
Mar 30, 2016·Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice·O J OluborA E Omoti
Dec 15, 2015·Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health·C Mary Schooling
Jun 22, 2016·Value in Health : the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research·Christopher K HoyleJean Brooks
Aug 17, 2015·The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine·Nadine CrosslandCaroline Jeffery
Mar 5, 2015·Artificial Organs·Sebastian V RojasJan D Schmitto
Aug 1, 2015·Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine·Torben K BeckerGlobal Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) Group
Oct 6, 2015·Advances in Pharmacological Sciences·Syed Suhail AndrabiHeena Tabassum
Mar 17, 2015·Journal of Clinical Epidemiology·Affette McCaw-BinnsJasneth Mullings
Dec 25, 2012·Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology·Jae Gyun OhWoo Jin Park
Dec 14, 2011·Clinical Science·Marijke De CouckYori Gidron
Mar 28, 2012·Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology·Jae Gyun OhWoo Jin Park
Dec 26, 2012·Social Science & Medicine·Nikolaos Yiannakoulias, Darren M Scott
Apr 14, 2016·Journal of Nursing Scholarship : an Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing·Bih-O LeePi-Ling Chou
Aug 15, 2014·The International Journal of Neuroscience·Fang YeFu-Qiang Guo
Jul 3, 2013·Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases·Song Mao, Songming Huang
Dec 22, 2012·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·Joseph W PolliDerek J Nunez
Feb 19, 2014·International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion·Chebiwot KipsainaJoan Ozanne-Smith
Aug 2, 2015·BMC Cardiovascular Disorders·Marc J MathewsLeon Liebenberg
Mar 17, 2015·Nutrition & Metabolism·Marc J MathewsEdward H Mathews
May 23, 2015·Frontiers in Microbiology·Xianyan CuiHongbin Song
Jul 22, 2015·Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine : Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine·Mohammad Amin FallahzadehLeila Malekmakan
May 21, 2010·Population Health Metrics·Chalapati RaoAlan D Lopez
Apr 19, 2015·Nutrition Journal·Marc J MathewsEdward H Mathews
Dec 3, 2014·Journal of Neuroscience Methods·Oskar MaierHeinz Handels
Nov 14, 2012·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·Maxie KohlerÅsa M Wheelock
Nov 26, 2013·Atherosclerosis·Florian J MayerMatthias Hoke
Feb 24, 2016·Heart Views : the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association·Saurabh R ShrivastavaPrateek S Shrivastava
Sep 30, 2016·Archives of Trauma Research·Elaheh AinyMashyaneh Haddadi
Nov 30, 2006·PLoS Medicine·Colin D Mathers, Dejan Loncar
May 14, 2016·Technology and Health Care : Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine·Qian WuWenbin Fu
Jul 5, 2016·International Journal of Cardiology·Guang YangBo Yu
Jun 9, 2016·International Journal of Mental Health Systems·Ashley K HagamanBrandon A Kohrt
Oct 31, 2015·International Ophthalmology·Puneet S BraichJorawer S Singh
Jul 16, 2016·Medicine, Conflict, and Survival·Frank Boulton, Nathanael Louise
Aug 16, 2016·International Journal of Cardiology·Jie V Zhao, C Mary Schooling
May 6, 2016·Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine·Torben K BeckerGlobal Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) Group
Sep 22, 2016·Acta Neurologica Scandinavica·X-L ChenBei Shao
Sep 24, 2016·BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine·Jiangquan LiaoJie Wang
Mar 1, 2008·Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology·Wendy J GrahamOona M R Campbell
Nov 22, 2007·Lancet·Prasanta MahapatraMonitoring Vital Events
Jan 10, 2017·Free Radical Biology & Medicine·Eva RamosJavier Egea
Jan 13, 2017·Scientific Reports·Yomna E SalehNageh K Allam
Apr 9, 2013·Annals of Saudi Medicine·Akram NajafiNegin Javdani
Apr 14, 2017·Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics·Tanuka DattaNabanita S Datta
Feb 26, 2015·Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas Médicas E Biológicas·T LiuJ Y Jiang
Nov 8, 2014·Global Health Action·Momodou JassehUmberto D'Alessandro
Jun 14, 2013·Scandinavian Journal of Public Health·Stein Emil Vollset
May 13, 2017·Shock·Nehemiah T Liu, Jose Salinas
Jun 20, 2012·Cerebrovascular Diseases·Andreas MeiselLena Ulm
Apr 27, 2018·European Clinical Respiratory Journal·M KentsonH L Persson
Oct 17, 2017·Expert Review of Clinical Immunology·Majid Zaki-DizajiAsghar Aghamohammadi
Oct 22, 2014·World Journal of Methodology·Christina N KontoghiorgheGeorge J Kontoghiorghes
Jan 20, 2012·The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews·Teslim Kuteyi, Charles I Okwundu
Mar 3, 2018·Journal of Neuroscience Research·B S Alghamdi
Jun 17, 2015·The British Journal of General Practice : the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners·Satnam K VirdeeJonathan Mant
Sep 25, 2018·Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment·Bifeng ChenXianhong Feng
Dec 9, 2016·Journal of the American Heart Association·Hamid HosseiniTin Kyaw
May 16, 2014·Journal of Clinical Neurology·Andreas CharidimouIoannis Evdokimidis
May 11, 2013·Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation·Agust HilmarssonElias Olafsson
Jun 7, 2018·Circulation. Genomic and Precision Medicine·Jie V Zhao, C Mary Schooling
Aug 2, 2018·PloS One·Oscar Mesalles-NaranjoGerry McCartney
Oct 26, 2018·European Journal of Dental Education : Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe·Nils GustafssonEva Levring Jäghagen
May 29, 2018·Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health·Hatim I AlghamdiGhada N Farhat
Jan 9, 2014·Environmental Health Perspectives·Ki-Do EumSusan A Korrick
Feb 26, 2010·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Lora V Hooper, Andrew J Macpherson
Jun 11, 2011·Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences·B Vitiello
Apr 25, 2014·Scientific Reports·S PicoliR S Mendes
Sep 9, 2011·Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række·Kristine BærøeOle Frithjof Norheim
Oct 31, 2019·Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews·Manuela Lopera Higuita, Leigh G Griffiths
Jun 4, 2013·Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association·Ron L H HandelsJohan L Severens
Apr 17, 2014·Transboundary and Emerging Diseases·R CoxC W Revie
Jul 3, 2015·Cardiology in Review·Nikolaos PapageorgiouDimitris Tousoulis
Oct 25, 2019·Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry·Kristen N HerloskyAlyssa N Crittenden
Dec 25, 2012·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Bryan L EppertMichael T Borchers
Apr 18, 2017·Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine·Haizhou XuShuogui Xu
Aug 22, 2012·Age and Ageing·Karen Andersen-RanbergBernard Jeune
Oct 8, 2014·Current Opinion in Critical Care·Eric M Campion, Robert C Mackersie
Oct 25, 2014·Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology·Guozhen CuiSimon Ming Yuen Lee
Dec 2, 2016·Neural Regeneration Research·Engin KoyuncuNeşe Özgirgin
Feb 9, 2017·Archives of public health = Archives belges de santé publique·Md Nuruzzaman KhanMd Aminur Rahman
May 5, 2018·Journal of Neuroinflammation·Zhuo ChengGuo-Yuan Yang
Feb 14, 2013·The International Journal of Artificial Organs·Irene CattaneoAndrea Remuzzi
Feb 5, 2014·Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry·Chanpreet Singh BindraNirmal Singh
Jul 18, 2015·Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology·Wenlong LiRuichen Guo
Feb 9, 2017·Lipids in Health and Disease·Caiyan AnXiulan Su
Mar 16, 2018·Heart and Vessels·Jasveen J Kandhai-RagunathClemens von Birgelen
Nov 23, 2019·Journal of Clinical Medicine·Fang-I HsiehLi-Ming Lien
Mar 24, 2011·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·Grant T GenerauxKelly M Mahar Doan
Feb 15, 2017·Frontiers in Genetics·Andreas D FlourisParaskevi Sakellariou
Apr 6, 2019·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·Jie V ZhaoC Mary Schooling
Feb 20, 2020·Annals of Biomedical Engineering·Ming J ChengEno E Ebong
Oct 28, 2019·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Francisco AlonsoMacarena Tortosa
Apr 25, 2020·Journal of Clinical Medicine·Chintan K GandhiJoanna Floros
Nov 17, 2016·BMC Oral Health·Marc J MathewsGeorge E Mathews
Jan 13, 2018·Acta Odontologica Scandinavica·Leif JanssonFreha Mulk Niazi
Dec 21, 2018·Frontiers in Neurology·Adriano PintoMauricio Reyes
Dec 10, 2016·Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience·Alejandro RomeroAlberto Alcázar
Sep 11, 2019·Health Information Management : Journal of the Health Information Management Association of Australia·Reza SafdariSara Shekalyou
Aug 7, 2018·Annals of the American Thoracic Society·Hussain S LalaniPeter S Kussin
May 8, 2019·JACC. Basic to Translational Science·Evelyne M HouangJoseph M Metzger
Nov 20, 2020·Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care·Trideep J DeoriArshi Ansari
Feb 22, 2021·Ageing Research Reviews·Nikolai JaschkeTilman D Rachner
Mar 30, 2021·Clinical Kidney Journal·Katia Bravo-JaimesJuana Hinostroza

Related Concepts

Cause of Death
Life Extension
World Health
World Health Organization
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Epidemiologic Studies
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Coronary Heart Disease
Cessation of Life

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.