Global Quantitative Mapping of Enhancers in Rice Genome by STARR-seq

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Jialei SunChunhui Hou


Identification of enhancers has been a challenge in plants. STARR-seq measures enhancer activity of millions fragments in parallel. Here we present a global map of rice enhancers quantitatively determined using STARR-seq. Most enhancers are mapped within genes, especially at the 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR) and the coding sequences. Silent and low expressed genes in genomic regions enriched with transposable elements (TEs) are frequently found containing proximal enhancers. Analysis of enhancer epigenetic features at their endogenous loci revealed that most enhancers do not co-localize with DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) and are lack of H3K4me1. Clustering enhancers by their epigenetic modifications revealed that about 40% of identified enhancers carry one or more epigenetic marks. Repressive H3K27me3 is frequently enriched with positive marks of H3K4m3 and/or H3K27ac, which together may bookmark poised enhancers. Intergenic enhancers were predicted based on the location of DHS relative to genes, which overlap poorly with functionally identified enhancers. In summary, enhancers were quantitatively identified by functional analysis in a model plant genome, which provides a valuable resource for further mechanistic studie...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease
DNA Transposable Elements
Enzyme Repression
Rice (Dietary)
3' Untranslated Regions
BAT Loci

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