Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: from pathophysiology to therapeutic opportunities in obesity-associated disorders

Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
E PaschettaG Musso


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a hormone secreted from the intestinal K-cells with established insulin-releasing actions. However, the GIP receptor is widely distributed in peripheral organs, including the adipose tissue, gut, bone and brain, where GIP modulates energy intake, cell metabolism and proliferation, and lipid and glucose metabolism, eventually promoting lipid and glucose storage. In diabetes and obesity, the incretin effect of GIP is blunted, while the extrapancreatic tissues keep a normal sensitivity to this hormone. As GIP levels are normal or elevated in obesity and diabetes, mounting evidence from chemical or genetic GIP deletion in animal models of obesity-related diabetes suggests that GIP may have a pro-obesogenic action and that a strategy antagonizing GIP action may be beneficial in these conditions, clearing triglyceride deposits from adipose tissue, liver and muscle, and restoring normal insulin sensitivity. Emerging evidence also suggests that the metabolic benefits of bypass surgery are mediated, at least in part, by surgical removal of GIP-secreting K-cells in the upper small intestine.


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