Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC2) Suppress Beneficial Type 1 Immune Responses During Pulmonary Cryptococcosis

Frontiers in Immunology
Markus KindermannStefan Wirtz


Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen preferentially causing disease in immunocompromised individuals such as organ-transplant-recipients, patients receiving immunosuppressive medications or, in particular, individuals suffering from HIV infection. Numerous studies clearly indicated that the control of C. neoformans infections is strongly dependent on a prototypic type 1 immune response and classical macrophage activation, whereas type 2-biased immunity and alternative activation of macrophages has been rather implicated in disease progression and detrimental outcomes. However, little is known about regulatory pathways modulating and balancing immune responses during early phases of pulmonary cryptococcosis. Here, we analyzed the role of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) for the control of C. neoformans infection. Using an intranasal infection model with a highly virulent C. neoformans strain, we found that ILC2 numbers were strongly increased in C. neoformans-infected lungs along with induction of a type 2 response. Mice lacking ILC2s due to conditional deficiency of the transcription factor RAR-related orphan receptor alpha (Rora) displayed a massive downregulation of features of type 2 immunity as r...Continue Reading


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Related Concepts

HIV Infections
Immunocompromised Host
Disease Progression
Cryptococcus neoformans
Lymphoid Cells
RORA protein, human

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