Jan 10, 2013

Growth attenuation with developmental schedule progression in embryos and early larvae of Sterechinus neumayeri raised under elevated CO2

PloS One
Pauline C YuGretchen E Hofmann

Abstract

The Southern Ocean, a region that will be an ocean acidification hotspot in the near future, is home to a uniquely adapted fauna that includes a diversity of lightly-calcified invertebrates. We exposed the larvae of the echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri to environmental levels of CO(2) in McMurdo Sound (control: 410 µatm, Ω = 1.35) and mildly elevated pCO(2) levels, both near the level of the aragonite saturation horizon (510 µatm pCO(2), Ω = 1.12), and to under-saturating conditions (730 µatm, Ω = 0.82). Early embryological development was normal under these conditions with the exception of the hatching process, which was slightly delayed. Appearance of the initial calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) spicule nuclei among the primary mesenchyme cells of the gastrulae was synchronous between control and elevated pCO(2) treatments. However, by prism (7 days after the initial appearance of the spicule nucleus), elongating arm rod spicules were already significantly shorter in the highest CO(2) treatment. Unfed larvae in the 730 µatm pCO(2) treatment remained significantly smaller than unfed control larvae at days 15-30, and larvae in the 510 µatm treatment were significantly smaller at day 20. At day 30, the arm lengths were more differentia...Continue Reading

  • References24
  • Citations12

References

  • References24
  • Citations12

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Fertility
Embryo
Neuro-Oncological Ventral Antigen 2
Buffers
LYPD1 gene
Cold Temperature
Entire Embryo
Odontaster validus
Science of Morphology
Cell Division

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