PMID: 1094469Jun 1, 1975Paper

Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
B N AmesE Yamasaki

Abstract

We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans.

References

Mar 1, 1975·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J McCannB N Ames
Aug 1, 1973·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·B N AmesF D Lee
Mar 1, 1974·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·W E Durston, B N Ames
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Citations

Mar 17, 2001·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·M Gago-DominguezR K Ross
Apr 1, 1991·Cell Biology and Toxicology·K S RamosD Demick
Jan 1, 1985·Archives of Dermatological Research·R Wilson
Jul 1, 1980·Current Microbiology·A S SideropoulosM K Betz
May 15, 2012·Cancer Causes & Control : CCC·Martine M RosLambertus A Kiemeney
Jan 11, 2012·Environmental Science and Pollution Research International·Hongxia Xiong, Qixing Zhou
Apr 1, 1979·Chemico-biological Interactions·T AuneE Dybing
Dec 1, 1977·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·F G StenbäckL A Russell
Dec 1, 1977·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·G K LloydR E Davies
Nov 1, 1975·Mutation Research·B N AmesE Yamasaki
Apr 1, 1977·Mutation Research·W G Blijleven
Sep 1, 1979·Mutation Research·J StambergY Koltin
Sep 1, 1979·Mutation Research·M HollsteinW W Nichols
Apr 1, 1980·Mutation Research·A S SideropoulosM T Jones
May 1, 1983·Mutation Research·D M Maron, B N Ames
Feb 1, 1986·Mutation Research·J M GentileM J Plewa

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