Haplotypes of the HRES-1 endogenous retrovirus are associated with development and disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus

Arthritis and Rheumatism
Rudolf PullmannA Perl


Endogenous retroviral sequences represent a link between viral and genetic factors that may influence the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The HRES-1 human endogenous retroviral sequence is centrally located at the 1q42 chromosomal region relative to microsatellites previously associated with SLE. We therefore undertook the present study to determine the haplotypes of the HRES-1 locus and their linkage to SLE. One hundred six patients with SLE, 82 unrelated healthy Caucasian individuals, and 70 healthy members of 34 lupus families were examined. HRES-1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed by sequencing and restriction enzyme mapping. Microsatellites were analyzed by PCR. Haplotype construction and transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT) were performed in lupus families. Based on 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a 935-base interval, we detected 6 HRES-1 haplotypes that were differentially segregated in unrelated Caucasian patients and control subjects (chi(2) = 16.86, P = 0.0048) and were in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the D1S225 microsatellite (P = 0.0002). The microsatellites D1S225, D1S235, and D1S2785 (but not D1S229) were linked to SLE by TDT. Interestingly, L...Continue Reading


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