PMID: 7993135Oct 1, 1994Paper

Hardiness and death attitudes: predictors of depression in the institutionalized elderly

Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
J K Cataldo


There are varied and high estimated prevalence rates of depression in the institutionalized elderly. Personality characteristics and attitudes are two attributes in the uniqueness of humans that have been overlooked in explaining depression. This study examined the relationships of hardiness and death attitudes to depression. The sample consisted of 90 consenting participants; 46 women and 44 men. The mean age of the sample was 73.3 years. This study produced the following three major findings: hardiness and depression are correlated; healthy death attitudes are related to low depression scores; and the combination of nonhardiness and health-limiting death attitudes are reliable predictors of depression in the institutionalized elderly.


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