Hazard identification of strong dermal sensitizers

Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Janet C Gould, Stephan Taylor


Dermal reactions are the most frequently reported chemical health-related occupational hazard. Identifying dermal sensitizers is important for improving workplace safety. This paper takes a close look at the physico-chemical properties and results from the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) to better understand and predict potent dermal sensitizers. The LLNA was used to identify 28 pharmaceutical agents or chemical intermediates as potent dermal sensitizers, EC3 < 1%. Certain parameters were examined to determine if there was any predictability to identify potent dermal sensitizers. These included a computer structure activity analysis using Derek for Windows, molecular weight (Mw), calculated log P, and the log-linear extrapolation approach for estimating the potency. With Derek for Windows, 13 compounds were identified as negative and 15 as positive for structural alerts, the most common being haloalkanes, and hydrazines. Additional mechanisms of reactivity were postulated for the remaining compounds. The examination of the Mw showed that all molecules had Mw < 550 Da. For 21 compounds, the interpolated vs extrapolated methods for determining the EC3 value were compared. For eight of the 21 compounds, the extrapolated EC3 was in t...Continue Reading


May 1, 1992·Pharmaceutical Research·R O Potts, R H Guy
Jan 1, 1993·Life Sciences·K KobayashiK Uchida
Apr 4, 1998·American Journal of Contact Dermatitis : Official Journal of the American Contact Dermatitis Society·J HiltonI Kimber
May 22, 2002·Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA·G P MossM T D Cronin
Dec 17, 2003·Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part a·R M BrandT M Donohue
Oct 2, 2004·Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences·M JumaaV J Stella
Jun 21, 2005·Chemical Research in Toxicology·Adam FedorowiczEugene Demchuk
Aug 30, 2006·Methods : a Companion to Methods in Enzymology·G Frank GerberickIan Kimber
Apr 15, 2008·Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP·Anne Marie ApiRobert Safford
Apr 22, 2008·Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP·Ian KimberAnne Marie Api

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Jun 2, 2015·Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP·Gian C WinklerEster Lovsin Barle
May 21, 2016·Contact Dermatitis·Nadia Raison-PeyronMagnus Bruze

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.