Environmental mycobacteria are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The health impacts of human-mycobacterial interactions are complex and likely much broader than currently recognized. Environmental mycobacteria preferentially survive chlorination in municipal water, using it as a vector to infect humans. Widespread chlorination of water has likely selected more resistant environmental mycobacteria species and potentially explains the shift from M. scrofulaceum to M. avium as a cause of cervical lymphadenitis in children. Thus, human activities have affected mycobacterial ecology. While the slow growth and hydrophobicity of environmental mycobacteria appear to be disadvantages, the unique cell wall architecture also grants high biocide and antibiotic resistance, while hydrophobicity facilitates nutrient acquisition, biofilm formation, and spread by aerosolization. The remarkable stress tolerance of environmental mycobacteria is the major reason they are human pathogens. Environmental mycobacteria invade protozoans, exhibiting parasitic and symbiotic relationships. The molecular mechanisms of mycobacterial intracellular pathogenesis in animals likely evolved from similar mechanisms facilita...Continue Reading
The division between fast- and slow-growing species corresponds to natural relationships among the mycobacteria
Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in acid, brown-water swamps of the southeastern United States and their association with environmental variables
Mycobacterium chelonae wound infections after plastic surgery employing contaminated gentian violet skin-marking solution
Selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and M. scrofulaceum
Recovery and survival of nontuberculous mycobacteria under various growth and decontamination conditions
Mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children: a prospective study of 105 nontuberculous cases with long-term follow-up
Mycobacterium avium complex in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and the risk of M. avium complex bacteremia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Factors affecting invasion of HT-29 and HEp-2 epithelial cells by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex.
Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya.
Retrospective review of culture-positive mycobacterial lymphadenitis cases in children in Nottingham, 1979-1990
Detection and identification of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in 6,472 tuberculosis suspected patients
Monoclonal infection involving Mycobacterium avium presenting with three distinct colony morphotypes.
The prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in drinking water supply systems in a demarcated region in Czech Republic, in the period 1984-1989
Simian immunodeficiency virus-inoculated macaques acquire Mycobacterium avium from potable water during AIDS
Pulmonary illness associated with exposure to Mycobacterium-avium complex in hot tub water. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis or infection?
Exposure to low oxygen tension and increased osmolarity enhance the ability of Mycobacterium avium to enter intestinal epithelial (HT-29) cells.
Mycobacterium avium bacilli grow saprozoically in coculture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga and survive within cyst walls
A single 16S ribosomal RNA substitution is responsible for resistance to amikacin and other 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides in Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae
Mycobacterial linear plasmids have an invertron-like structure related to other linear replicons in actinomycetes.
BCG infection suppresses allergic sensitization and development of increased airway reactivity in an animal model
Mycobacterium avium infection of gut mucosa in mice associated with late inflammatory response and intestinal cell necrosis
A new rapidly growing mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov., isolated from the indoor walls of a children's day care centre
Comparison of large restriction fragments of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with those of isolates from potable water
Legionella pneumophila utilizes the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages
Colony morphotypes on Congo red agar segregate along species and drug susceptibility lines in the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex
The tracing of mycobacteria in drinking water supply systems by culture, conventional, and real time PCRs
Targeting the rpoB gene using nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital tap water.
Comparative analysis of immune responses to Mycobacterium abscessus infection and its antigens in two murine models.
Comparative study with two different enrichments in the culture media used in the disinfectant efficacy assay
Epidemiological evidence for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis as a cause of Crohn's disease
Mycobacteria causing human cervical lymphadenitis in pastoral communities in the Karamoja region of Uganda
The tuberculin skin test: a useful screen for nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in regions with a low prevalence of tuberculosis?
Expression pattern of interferon-inducible transcriptional genes in neutrophils during bovine tuberculosis infection
Application of polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism in typing ocular rapid-growing nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates from three patients with postoperative endophthalmitis
Diversity, community composition, and dynamics of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria in an urban tap water production and distribution system
Environmental monitoring of Mycobacterium bovis in badger feces and badger sett soil by real-time PCR, as confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunocapture, and cultivation.
Autoinducer-2 triggers the oxidative stress response in Mycobacterium avium, leading to biofilm formation.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lake catchments, in river water abstracted for domestic use, and in effluent from domestic sewage treatment works: diverse opportunities for environmental cycling and human exposure
Autofluorescence as a tool for structural analysis of biofilms formed by nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria
Mycobacterium gilvum illustrates size-correlated relationships between mycobacteria and Acanthamoeba polyphaga
Diversity of nontuberculoid Mycobacterium species in biofilms of urban and semiurban drinking water distribution systems
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the catchment area and water of the River Taff in South Wales, United Kingdom, and its potential relationship to clustering of Crohn's disease cases in the city of Cardiff
Replication and long-term persistence of bovine and human strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis within Acanthamoeba polyphaga
Genome Sequence of an Epidemic Isolate of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Surface spreading motility shown by a group of phylogenetically related, rapidly growing pigmented mycobacteria suggests that motility is a common property of mycobacterial species but is restricted to smooth colonies.
Identification of the polyketide synthase involved in the biosynthesis of the surface-exposed lipooligosaccharides in mycobacteria.
Genome sequence of Mycobacterium hassiacum DSM 44199, a rare source of heat-stable mycobacterial proteins
Biochip system for rapid and accurate identification of mycobacterial species from isolates and sputum.
Sequencing of hsp65 gene for identification of Mycobacterium species isolated from environmental and clinical sources in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
"Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" in neck lymph nodes of children and their environment examined by culture and triplex quantitative real-time PCR
Detection and identification of Mycobacterium spp. in clinical specimens by combining the Roche Cobas Amplicor Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay with Mycobacterium genus detection and nucleic acid sequencing
Allergy and Asthma
Allergy and asthma are inflammatory disorders that are triggered by the activation of an allergen-specific regulatory t cell. These t cells become activated when allergens are recognized by allergen-presenting cells. Here is the latest research on allergy and asthma.
Biofilms are adherent bacterial communities embedded in a polymer matrix and can cause persistent human infections that are highly resistant to antibiotics. Discover the latest research on Biofilms here.