Oct 14, 2014

Hemodynamic Shear Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Hemodialysis Access

The Open Urology & Nephrology Journal
Michelle K FittsYan-Ting Shiu

Abstract

Surgically-created blood conduits used for chronic hemodialysis, including native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and synthetic AV grafts (AVGs), are the lifeline for kidney failure patients. Unfortunately, each has its own limitations: AVFs often fail to mature to become useful for dialysis and AVGs often fail due to stenosis as a result of neointimal hyperplasia, which preferentially forms at the graft-venous anastomosis. No clinical therapies are currently available to significantly promote AVF maturation or prevent neointimal hyperplasia in AVGs. Central to devising strategies to solve these problems is a complete mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiological processes. The pathology of arteriovenous access problems is likely multi-factorial. This review focuses on the roles of fluid-wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial cells (ECs). In arteriovenous access, shunting of arterial blood flow directly into the vein drastically alters the hemodynamics in the vein. These hemodynamic changes are likely major contributors to non-maturation of an AVF vein and/or formation of neointimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis of an AVG. ECs separate blood from other vascular wall cells and also influence the phenotype of these o...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Kidney Failure
Entire Vein
Blood Vessel
Chronic Disease
Arteriovenous Graft
Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy
Biologic Development
Venous Anastomosis
Blood Flow
Renal Insufficiency

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