Hepatotoxicity of rifampin and pyrazinamide in the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected persons: is it different than in HIV-uninfected persons?

Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Fred M GordinCenters for Disease Control and Prevention

Abstract

In 2000, results of a multinational trial demonstrated that a 2-month course of rifampin and pyrazinamide (RZ) was as effective as isoniazid (INH) in reducing tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). After the release of new guidelines, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received reports of severe hepatotoxicity associated with the use of the RZ regimen for the treatment of LTBI in the general population. To better understand the occurrence of hepatotoxicity in an HIV-infected population, we conducted a more detailed analysis of the liver function test results obtained in the multinational trial of RZ. At study entry, patients were required to have a bilirubin level of < or =2.5 mg/dL and both an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and an alkaline phosphatase level of < or =5 times the upper limit of normal. Patients with acute hepatitis were excluded. At months 1 and 2 of the study, all patients had bilirubin and AST levels measured. There was no difference between the RZ and INH groups with regard to AST level or bilirubin level at baseline. An increase in the AST level of > or =40 U/L was associated with the use of INH and older age; and...Continue Reading

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