Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unr...Continue Reading
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Sporadic cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome associated with faecal cytotoxin and cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in stools
Shiga-like toxin-converting phages from Escherichia coli strains that cause hemorrhagic colitis or infantile diarrhea
Vero cell toxins in Escherichia coli and related bacteria: transfer by phage and conjugation and toxic action in laboratory animals, chickens and pigs
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Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans
Dynamics of the inducing signal for the SOS regulatory system in Escherichia coli after ultraviolet irradiation
Transduction of enteric Escherichia coli isolates with a derivative of Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophage phi3538 isolated from Escherichia coli O157:H7
Antibacterials that are used as growth promoters in animal husbandry can affect the release of Shiga-toxin-2-converting bacteriophages and Shiga toxin 2 from Escherichia coli strains
Molecular characteristics and epidemiological significance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains.
Toxin gene expression by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: the role of antibiotics and the bacterial SOS response
Comparison of Shiga toxin production by hemolytic-uremic syndrome-associated and bovine-associated Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates.
Shiga toxin 2-converting bacteriophages associated with clonal variability in Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains of human origin isolated from a single outbreak.
Free Shiga toxin bacteriophages isolated from sewage showed diversity although the stx genes appeared conserved
Diversity of stx2 converting bacteriophages induced from Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from cattle
Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humans
Simple method for plating Escherichia coli bacteriophages forming very small plaques or no plaques under standard conditions.
Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among induced, stx2-carrying bacteriophages from environmental Escherichia coli strains.
Differential efficiency of induction of various lambdoid prophages responsible for production of Shiga toxins in response to different induction agents
Quantification of Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophages, by real-time PCR and correlation with phage infectivity.
Simplex and multiplex real-time PCR assays for the detection of flagellar (H-antigen) fliC alleles and intimin (eae) variants associated with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, O145:H28 and O157:H7
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H11-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Bacteriology and Clinical Presentation
Duplex real-time PCR detection of type III effector tccP and tccP2 genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli and prevalence in raw milk cheeses
Quantification and evaluation of infectivity of shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages in beef and salad
Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study
A quantitative PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in minced beef and dairy products
A sensitive and simple plaque formation method for the Stx2 phage of Escherichia coli O157:H7, which does not form plaques in the standard plating procedure
Multicenter evaluation of a sequence-based protocol for subtyping Shiga toxins and standardizing Stx nomenclature.
Detection of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in bovine dairy herds in Northern Italy
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Characteristics of emerging human-pathogenic Escherichia coli O26:H11 strains isolated in France between 2010 and 2013 and carrying the stx2d gene only
Diversity of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 Strains Examined via stx Subtypes and Insertion Sites of Stx and EspK Bacteriophages
Influence of Stress Factors Related to Cheese-Making Process and to STEC Detection Procedure on the Induction of Stx Phages from STEC O26:H11
Shigatoxin encoding Bacteriophage ϕ24B modulates bacterial metabolism to raise antimicrobial tolerance
A Rapid Immunoassay for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Directly from Human Fecal Samples and Its Performance in Detection of Toxin Subtypes
Comparable stx2a expression and phage production levels between Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from human and bovine origin
Influence of SOS-inducing agents on the expression of ArtAB toxin gene in Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori.
Differential induction of Shiga toxin in environmental Escherichia coli O145:H28 strains carrying the same genotype as the outbreak strains.
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Insights into the genome architecture and evolution of Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages of Escherichia coli.
Infection with Bacteroides Phage BV01 Alters the Host Transcriptome and Bile Acid Metabolism in a Common Human Gut Microbe.
Bacteriophage: Phage Therapy
Phage therapy uses bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) to treat bacterial infections and is widely being recognized as an alternative to antibiotics. Here is the latest research.