High diagnostic yield of tuberculosis from screening urine samples from HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes : JAIDS
Stephen D LawnRobin Wood


We determined the diagnostic yield of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for tuberculosis (TB) when testing small volumes of urine from ambulatory HIV-infected patients before starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Compared with a gold standard of sputum culture, the sensitivity of urine Xpert among those with CD4 cell counts of <50, 50-100, and >100 cells per microliter were 44.4%, 25.0%, and 2.7% (P = 0.001), respectively. Urine Xpert testing provides a means of rapid TB diagnosis in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and poor prognosis. These data are indicative of high rates of TB dissemination and renal involvement in this clinical population.


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