Nov 12, 2019

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Exposure but Not Early Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Associated With Increased Hospitalization and Decreased Memory T-Cell Responses to Tetanus Vaccine

The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christiana SmithAdriana Weinberg

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants experience high rates of infectious morbidity. We hypothesized that early cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was associated with increased hospitalization rates and decreased vaccine responses in HEU compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU) infants. Among infants enrolled in the Tshipidi study in Botswana, we determined CMV infection status by 6 months of age and compared hospitalization rates and responses to tetanus and Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccines among HEU and HUU vaccinees. Fifteen of 226 (6.6%) HEU infants and 17 (19.3%) of 88 HUU infants were CMV-infected by 6 months. The HEU infants were approximately 3 times as likely to be hospitalized compared with HUU infants (P = .02). The HEU peripheral blood cells produced less interleukin (IL)-2 (P = .004), but similar amounts of interferon-γ, after stimulation with tetanus toxoid. Antitetanus immunoglobulin G titers were similar between groups. Cellular responses to purified protein derivative stimulation did not differ between groups. Maternal receipt of 3-drug antiretroviral therapy compared with zidovudine was associated with increased IL-2 expression after tetanus toxoid stimulation. The infants' CMV infection s...Continue Reading

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