PMID: 12655706Mar 27, 2003Paper

HIV infection and tuberculosis

Kekkaku : [Tuberculosis]
Hideaki Nagai

Abstract

The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is gradually increasing in Japan, and the morbidity rate from tuberculosis in the Japanese people is high. Accordingly, the number of cases with both infections is considered to increase in the future. Our hospital has already encountered 31 cases of HIV associated tuberculosis. HIV infects mainly CD4-positive cells. The extreme decrease in the cell count results in serious cellular immunological disorder. CD4-positive cell disorder induces disorders of B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophage functions. These destructive conditions show the state of immunodeficiency including macrophage that are most important for defense of acid-fast bacterial infection. Migration and activation of macrophages with cytokines derived from T cells are impaired to induce the following phenomena: hypoplasia of granuloma, failure of tubercule bacillus suppression, the spread to regional lymph nodes (hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes), and hematogenous dissemination. On this occasion, caseous necrosis and cavitation are unlikely to occur, and false-negative tuberculin reaction is often observed. The incidence of severe cases, which include miliary tub...Continue Reading

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