Homeobox genes are regulatory genes encoding nuclear proteins that act as transcription factors, regulating aspects of morphogenesis and cell differentiation during normal embryonic development of several animals. Vertebrate homeobox genes can be divided in two subfamilies: clustered, or HOX genes, and nonclustered, or divergent, homeobox genes. During the last decades, several homeobox genes, clustered and nonclustered ones, were identified in normal tissue, in malignant cells, and in different diseases and metabolic alterations. Homeobox genes are involved in the normal teeth development and in familial teeth agenesis. Normal development and cancer have a great deal in common, as both processes involve shifts between cell proliferation and differentiation. The literature is accumulating evidences that homeobox genes play an important role in oncogenesis. Many cancers exhibit expression of or alteration in homeobox genes. Those include leukemias, colon, skin, prostate, breast and ovarian cancers, among others. This review is aimed at introducing readers to some of the homeobox family functions in normal tissues and especially in cancer.
Fusion of the nucleoporin gene NUP98 to HOXA9 by the chromosome translocation t(7;11)(p15;p15) in human myeloid leukaemia
Cell-type-specific modulation of Hox gene expression by members of the TGF-beta superfamily: a comparison between human osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma cell lines
The highest affinity DNA element bound by Pbx complexes in t(1;19) leukemic cells fails to mediate cooperative DNA-binding or cooperative transactivation by E2a-Pbx1 and class I Hox proteins - evidence for selective targetting of E2a-Pbx1 to a subset of Pbx-recognition elements
Discovery of allelic variants of HOXA1 and HOXB1: genetic susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders
Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in young people--a comprehensive literature review
Expression of the PAX2 oncogene in human breast cancer and its role in progesterone-dependent mammary growth
Identification of target genes regulated by PAX3 and PAX3-FKHR in embryogenesis and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
"Mowat-Wilson" syndrome with and without Hirschsprung disease is a distinct, recognizable multiple congenital anomalies-mental retardation syndrome caused by mutations in the zinc finger homeo box 1B gene
Genome-wide association study of primary tooth eruption identifies pleiotropic loci associated with height and craniofacial distances
Measuring spatial preferences at fine-scale resolution identifies known and novel cis-regulatory element candidates and functional motif-pair relationships
HOXB7 mRNA is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and its knockdown induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
Homeobox A7 increases cell proliferation by up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human granulosa cells
Genome-wide association study reveals multiple loci associated with primary tooth development during infancy
The LARGE principle of cellular reprogramming: lost, acquired and retained gene expression in foreskin and amniotic fluid-derived human iPS cells
Hyperexpression of HOXC13, located in the 12q13 chromosomal region, in well‑differentiated and dedifferentiated human liposarcomas
Genetic variations in miR-27a gene decrease mature miR-27a level and reduce gastric cancer susceptibility
Homeobox genes and down-stream transcription factor PPARγ in normal and pathological human placental development
Decreased expression of HOXB9 is related to poor overall survival in patients with gastric carcinoma
HOXC6 Is transcriptionally regulated via coordination of MLL histone methylase and estrogen receptor in an estrogen environment
HOXB9 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via transforming growth factor-β1 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells
Bisphenol-A induces expression of HOXC6, an estrogen-regulated homeobox-containing gene associated with breast cancer
HOXA5 inhibits metastasis via regulating cytoskeletal remodelling and associates with prolonged survival in non-small-cell lung carcinoma
Localization of Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a transcripts during early mice tooth development by in situ hybridization
HOXA10 is overexpressed in human ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma and correlates with poor survival
Molecular profiling of human prostate tissues: insights into gene expression patterns of prostate development during puberty
Long noncoding RNA DUXAP8 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells via targeting miR-590-5p
Increased methylation and decreased expression of homeobox genes TLX1, HOXA10 and DLX5 in human placenta are associated with trophoblast differentiation
HOXC6 gene silencing inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell viability through the TGF-β/smad signaling pathway in cervical carcinoma cells
Prognostic significance of the digit ratio after hormone therapy for prostate cancer: a prospective multicenter study
HOXA5 counteracts the function of pathological scar-derived fibroblasts by partially activating p53 signaling.
Potential of long non-coding RNAs as a therapeutic target and molecular markers in glioblastoma pathogenesis.
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