Hospitalized Patients With and Without Hemodialysis Have Markedly Different Vancomycin Pharmacokinetics: A Population Pharmacokinetic Model-Based Analysis.

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Vineet GotiJesse T Jacob


Despite being in clinical use for about 6 decades, vancomycin dosing remains perplexing and complex. A population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of the current nomogram-based dosing of vancomycin. Serum vancomycin concentrations were obtained as a part of routine therapeutic drug monitoring from two 500-bed academic medical centers. A population pharmacokinetic model was first built using these therapeutic drug monitoring data. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was conducted using NONMEM (7.2 and 7.3). The forward addition-backward elimination approach was used to test the covariate effects. Appropriate numerical and visual criteria were used as model diagnostics for checking model appropriateness and model qualification. The current nomogram efficiency was evaluated by determining the percentage of subjects in the therapeutic range (10-20 mg/L). A 2-compartment model with between-subject variability on clearance (CL), central volume of distribution (Vc), and peripheral volume of distribution best fit the data. Blood urea nitrogen, age, creatinine clearance, and hemodialysis status were significant covariates on clearance. Hemodialysis status was a significant covariate on...Continue Reading


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