Human cortical expansion involves diversification and specialization of supragranular intratelencephalic-projecting neurons

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
J. BergN. Goriounova

Abstract

The neocortex is disproportionately expanded in human compared to mouse, both in its total volume relative to subcortical structures and in the proportion occupied by supragranular layers that selectively make connections within the cortex and other telencephalic structures. Single-cell transcriptomic analyses of human and mouse cortex show an increased diversity of glutamatergic neuron types in supragranular cortex in human and pronounced gradients as a function of cortical depth. To probe the functional and anatomical correlates of this transcriptomic diversity, we describe a robust Patch-seq platform using neurosurgically-resected human tissues. We characterize the morphological and physiological properties of five transcriptomically defined human glutamatergic supragranular neuron types. Three of these types have properties that are specialized compared to the more homogeneous properties of transcriptomically defined homologous mouse neuron types. The two remaining supragranular neuron types, located exclusively in deep layer 3, do not have clear mouse homologues in supragranular cortex but are transcriptionally most similar to deep layer mouse intratelencephalic-projecting neuron types. Furthermore, we reveal the transcrip...Continue Reading

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