Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S L PimmPaul R Ehrlich

Abstract

Unqualified, the statement that approximately 1.3% of the approximately 10,000 presently known bird species have become extinct since A.D. 1500 yields an estimate of approximately 26 extinctions per million species per year (or 26 E/MSY). This is higher than the benchmark rate of approximately 1 E/MSY before human impacts, but is a serious underestimate. First, Polynesian expansion across the Pacific also exterminated many species well before European explorations. Second, three factors increase the rate: (i) The number of known extinctions before 1800 is increasing as taxonomists describe new species from skeletal remains. (ii) One should calculate extinction rates over the years since taxonomists described the species. Most bird species were described only after 1850. (iii) Some species are probably extinct; there is reluctance to declare them so prematurely. Thus corrected, recent extinction rates are approximately 100 E/MSY. In the last decades, the rate is <50 E/MSY, but would be 150 E/MSY were it not for conservation efforts. Increasing numbers of extinctions are on continents, whereas previously most were on islands. We predict a 21st century rate of approximately 1,000 E/MSY. Extinction threatens 12% of bird species; an...Continue Reading

References

Oct 24, 1997·Science·J B HughesP R Ehrlich
Mar 8, 2000·Nature·S L Pimm, P Raven
Mar 8, 2000·Nature·N MyersJ Kent
Mar 3, 2001·Science·W F LauranceT Fernandes
Sep 26, 1995·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S L Pimm, R A Askins
Nov 14, 2003·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Goncalo FerrazThomas E Lovejoy
Jan 9, 2004·Nature·Chris D ThomasStephen E Williams
Oct 16, 2004·Science·Simon N StuartRobert W Waller
Dec 17, 2004·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Cağan H SekercioğluPaul R Ehrlich
Jul 21, 1995·Science·S L PimmT M Brooks

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

May 3, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Lucas N JoppaStuart L Pimm
Apr 26, 2007·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Daniel P BebberRobert W Scotland
Oct 15, 2010·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Tien Ming Lee, Walter Jetz
Nov 23, 2012·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Tim NewboldDrew W Purves
May 20, 2009·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Jennifer A Dunne, Richard J Williams
May 9, 2012·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Marcel KlaassenWilliam A Buttemer
Jan 19, 2010·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Nigel E StorkKathy Willis
Oct 22, 2009·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Alison G Boyer
Mar 30, 2010·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Navjot S SodhiBarry W Brook
Mar 28, 2009·PloS One·Isla S FishburnPaul R Armsworth
Sep 23, 2009·Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America·Ghislain RompréGeorge Angehr
Nov 2, 2014·Systematic Biology·E PanteN Puillandre
Oct 12, 2013·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Julia E BrownJeffrey R Powell
Dec 15, 2015·Primates; Journal of Primatology·Ariadna Rangel NegrínPedro Américo Duarte Dias
Dec 8, 2015·Evolutionary Applications·Charles D WatersKerry A Naish
Sep 3, 2009·Ecology Letters·Amy K HahsNicholas S G Williams
Apr 12, 2008·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·M de L BrookeA J Stattersfield
Feb 8, 2008·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Cagan H SekerciogluScott R Loarie
Feb 20, 2007·Ecology Letters·Kyle S Van HoutanThomas E Lovejoy
Mar 5, 2013·Ecology Letters·Joel Rybicki, Ilkka Hanski
Apr 24, 2014·Ecology Letters·Jean-Yves BarnagaudJens-Christian Svenning
Jul 23, 2013·Science·Camilo MoraDerek P Tittensor
Oct 3, 2006·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·William F Laurance
Aug 28, 2014·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Jurriaan M DE VosStuart L Pimm
Sep 30, 2016·Global Change Biology·Andrea SantangeliAleksi Lehikoinen
Jul 18, 2017·Ecology Letters·Bo ZhangJ David Van Dyken
Mar 4, 2011·Nature·Anthony D BarnoskyElizabeth A Ferrer
Nov 26, 2015·Science Advances·Gerardo CeballosTodd M Palmer
Dec 15, 2006·Community Genetics·Hanan HamamyKamel Ajlouni
Dec 19, 2019·Biology Letters·Melanie J MonroeFolmer Bokma
Jul 28, 2017·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Thomas E Lovejoy
Sep 25, 2017·Annual Review of Entomology·Nigel E Stork

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia, or aphasia with convulsive disorder, is a rare childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram. Discover the latest research on LKS here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Related Papers

Science
S L PimmThomas M Brooks
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Taylor H RickettsEric Wikramanayake
BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Andy PurvisGeorgina M Mace
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved