Human pegivirus (HPgV), previously called hepatitis G virus or GB virus C, is a lymphotropic virus with undefined pathology. Because many viruses from the family Flaviviridae, to which HPgV belongs, are neurotropic, we studied whether HPgV could infect the central nervous system. We tested serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 96 patients with a diagnosis of encephalitis for a variety of pathogens by molecular methods and serology; we also tested for autoantibodies against neuronal antigens. We found HPgV in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 3 patients who had encephalitis of unclear origin; that is, all the markers that had been tested were negative. Single-strand confirmation polymorphism and next-generation sequencing analysis revealed differences between the serum and cerebrospinal fluid-derived viral sequences, which is compatible with the presence of a separate HPgV compartment in the central nervous system. It is unclear whether HPgV was directly responsible for encephalitis in these patients.
Bone marrow-derived elements in the central nervous system: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural survey of rat chimeras
Male donor-derived cells in the brains of female sex-mismatched bone marrow transplant recipients: a Y-chromosome specific in situ hybridization study
Competitive selection in vivo by a cell for one variant over another: implications for RNA virus quasispecies in vivo
Translation initiation in GB viruses A and C: evidence for internal ribosome entry and implications for genome organization
Lack of evidence for hepatitis G virus replication in the livers of patients coinfected with hepatitis C and G viruses
Quantitation of hepatitis G and C viruses in the liver: evidence that hepatitis G virus is not hepatotropic
Detection of hepatitis G virus replication sites by using highly strand-specific Tth-based reverse transcriptase PCR
Lack of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus sequences in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with central nervous system infections
Search for hepatitis C virus negative-strand RNA sequences and analysis of viral sequences in the central nervous system: evidence of replication
Identification of unique hepatitis C virus quasispecies in the central nervous system and comparative analysis of internal translational efficiency of brain, liver, and serum variants
Analysis of hepatitis C virus quasispecies transmission and evolution in patients infected through blood transfusion
Factors influencing PCR detection of viruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected CNS infections
Characterization of an immunodominant antigenic site on GB virus C glycoprotein E2 that is involved in cell binding
Deep sequencing for the detection of virus-like sequences in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis: detection of GBV-C in human brain.
Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2013)
Human pegivirus RNA is found in multiple blood mononuclear cells in vivo and serum-derived viral RNA-containing particles are infectious in vitro
Tropism of human pegivirus (formerly known as GB virus C/hepatitis G virus) and host immunomodulation: insights into a highly successful viral infection
Detection of GB virus C genomic sequence in the cerebrospinal fluid of a HIV-infected patient in China: a case report and literature review
Low prevalence of human pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) in HTLV-1 carriers from Belém, Pará, North Region of Brazil
Enhanced Detection of DNA Viruses in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Encephalitis Patients Using Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing
Human pegivirus 1 infection in lung transplant recipients: Prevalence, clinical relevance and kinetics of viral replication under immunosuppressive therapy.
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