Jun 8, 2001

Human tumor suppressor EXT gene family members EXTL1 and EXTL3 encode alpha 1,4- N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that likely are involved in heparan sulfate/ heparin biosynthesis

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Byung-Taek KimK Sugahara


The tumor suppressors EXT1 and EXT2 are associated with hereditary multiple exostoses and encode bifunctional glycosyltransferases essential for chain polymerization of heparan sulfate (HS) and its analog, heparin (Hep). Three highly homologous EXT-like genes, EXTL1-EXTL3, have been cloned, and EXTL2 is an alpha1,4-GlcNAc transferase I, the key enzyme that initiates the HS/Hep synthesis. In the present study, truncated forms of EXTL1 and EXTL3, lacking the putative NH2-terminal transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, were transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and found to harbor alpha-GlcNAc transferase activity. EXTL3 used not only N-acetylheparosan oligosaccharides that represent growing HS chains but also GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-O-C2H4NH-benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz), a synthetic substrate for alpha-GlcNAc transferase I that determines and initiates HS/Hep synthesis. In contrast, EXTL1 used only the former acceptor. Neither EXTL1 nor EXTL3 showed any glucuronyltransferase activity as examined with N-acetylheparosan oligosaccharides. Heparitinase I digestion of each transferase-reaction product showed that GlcNAc had been transferred exclusively through an alpha1,4-configuration. Hence, EXTL3 most likely is involved in both chain initiat...Continue Reading

  • References38
  • Citations64


Mentioned in this Paper

Tumor Suppressor Genes
Heparin Biosynthetic Process
Hereditary Multiple Exostoses
Genes, Reiterated
Proteins, Recombinant DNA
COS-7 Cells

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.