Humoral immune responses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Waleed Mahallawi


The emerging coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a worldwide public health crisis. Antibody analysis is an important procedure for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. We investigated the IgG, IgM, and IgA responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 178) in the Al Madinah region, Saudi Arabia, participated in this study. Of the 178 patients, 72 (40%) were categorized as severe, including 50 (69%) males and 22 (31%) females. The remaining106 (60%) patients were categorized as non-severe, including 85 (80%) males and 21 (20%) females. Qualitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was used to confirm the diagnosis of each patient. The specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies in patients' sera were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared between case presentations. The current study showed that all severe hospitalized patients presented significantly (p < 0.0001) increased anti-S IgG and IgM antibody accumulation compared with non-severe patients. A...Continue Reading


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