Apr 16, 2020

Hypertension, the renin-angiotensin system, and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections and lung injury: implications for COVID-19

Cardiovascular Research
Reinhold KreutzMichel Burnier

Abstract

Systemic arterial hypertension (referred to as hypertension herein) is a major risk factor of mortality worldwide, and its importance is further emphasized in the context of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection referred to as COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 infections commonly are older and have a history of hypertension. Almost 75% of patients who have died in the pandemic in Italy had hypertension. This raised multiple questions regarding a more severe course of COVID-19 in relation to hypertension itself as well as its treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, e.g. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). We provide a critical review on the relationship of hypertension, RAS, and risk of lung injury. We demonstrate lack of sound evidence that hypertension per se is an independent risk factor for COVID-19. Interestingly, ACEIs and ARBs may be associated with lower incidence and/or improved outcome in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. We also review in detail the molecular mechanisms linking the RAS to lung damage and the potential clinical impact of treatment with RAS blockers in patients with COV...Continue Reading

  • References115
  • Citations8

Mentioned in this Paper

Discontinuation (Procedure)
Hypertensive Disease
Kidney
S protein, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Acute Respiratory Disease
A 19
Medical History
Coronaviridae
Lung
Death (Finding)

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