Hypokalemia from beta2-receptor stimulation by circulating epinephrine

The New England Journal of Medicine
M J BrownM B Murphy

Abstract

To determine whether epinephrine-induced hypokalemia is due to beta2-adrenoceptor stimulation, and whether hypokalemia can occur at physiologic concentrations of the agonist, epinephrine was infused into six normal volunteers at a rate of 0.1 microgram per kilogram of body weight per minute. The circulating epinephrine concentration was increased to 1.74 +/- 0.65 ng per milliliter, plasma potassium was reduced by 0.82 +/- 0.19 meq per liter, plasma insulin fell by 12 +/- 4 mU per liter, plasma renin activity was elevated, and tachycardia occurred. Isoproterenol infused at 0.02 micrograms per kilogram per minute caused similar tachycardia (25 beats per minute) and elevation in plasma renin activity (6.0 to 6.5 ng per milliliter per hour), but no hypokalemia. The difference in responses to the two catecholamines was ascribed to the relative beta2-selectivity of epinephrine. This hypothesis was tested in six subjects given infusions of epinephrine (0.05 micrograms per kilogram per minute) after administration of either 2.5 or 5 mg of ICI 118551--a selective beta2-receptor antagonist--or placebo. After placebo, epinephrine infusion elevated the circulating epinephrine concentration and reduced plasma potassium; hypokalemia was prev...Continue Reading

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