Identification of a germicidal compound against picornavirus in bamboo pyroligneous acid
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shinsuke MarumotoTakashi Watanabe
The germicidal activity of pyroligneous acid (PA) against a picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), was analyzed, and the component responsible for its disinfectant activity was identified. Bamboo PA (BPA) inactivated EMCV, but neutralization of BPA abolished this activity. Using liquid-liquid phase extraction and silica gel column chromatography, the hydrophobic active fraction of BPA was separated and its 12 major components were identified. The active fraction was reconstructed by mixing synthetic chemicals at the determined concentrations, and a subtraction series of one chemical from the complete mixture was prepared. An in vitro virus assay demonstrated that phenol was the sole germicidal component, and acetic acid augmented the phenol's inactivating activity resulting in >5-log decrease in EMCV infectivity. Considering the low environmental risk of PA, these findings suggest that BPA is a potentially useful agent for preventing viral epidemics in agricultural and human environments.