Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. C. difficile infections are transmitted when ingested spores germinate in the gastrointestinal tract and transform into vegetative cells. Germination begins when the germinant receptor CspC detects bile salts in the gut. CspC is a subtilisin-like serine pseudoprotease that activates the related CspB serine protease through an unknown mechanism. Activated CspB cleaves the pro-SleC zymogen, which allows the activated SleC cortex hydrolase to degrade the protective cortex layer. While these regulators are essential for C. difficile spores to outgrow and form toxin-secreting vegetative cells, the mechanisms controlling their function have only been partially characterized. In this study, we identify the lipoprotein GerS as a novel regulator of C. difficile spore germination using targeted mutagenesis. A gerS mutant has a severe germination defect and fails to degrade cortex even though it processes SleC at wildtype levels. Using complementation analyses, we demonstrate that GerS secretion, but not lipidation, is necessary for GerS to activate SleC. Importantly, loss of GerS attenuates the virulence of C. difficile in a hamste...Continue Reading
Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and regulation of the Bacillus subtilis gpr gene, which codes for the protease that initiates degradation of small, acid-soluble proteins during spore germination
Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or heat resistance
Localization of germination-specific spore-lytic enzymes in Clostridium perfringens S40 spores detected by immunoelectron microscopy
Lipid modification of prelipoproteins is dispensable for growth but essential for efficient protein secretion in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the Lgt gene
Mutations in the gerP locus of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus affect access of germinants to their targets in spores.
Role of ger proteins in nutrient and nonnutrient triggering of spore germination in Bacillus subtilis.
Partial characterization of an enzyme fraction with protease activity which converts the spore peptidoglycan hydrolase (SleC) precursor to an active enzyme during germination of Clostridium perfringens S40 spores and analysis of a gene cluster involved in the activity
Localization of a germinant receptor protein (GerBA) to the inner membrane of Bacillus subtilis spores
Genetic requirements for induction of germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis by Ca(2+)-dipicolinate
Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria: knowing when to hold 'em, knowing when to fold 'em.
The spore-specific alanine racemase of Bacillus anthracis and its role in suppressing germination during spore development.
SleC is essential for cortex peptidoglycan hydrolysis during germination of spores of the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium perfringens.
Antibiotic treatment of clostridium difficile carrier mice triggers a supershedder state, spore-mediated transmission, and severe disease in immunocompromised hosts.
The protease CspB is essential for initiation of cortex hydrolysis and dipicolinic acid (DPA) release during germination of spores of Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning isolates
Characterization of the sporulation initiation pathway of Clostridium difficile and its role in toxin production.
SleC is essential for germination of Clostridium difficile spores in nutrient-rich medium supplemented with the bile salt taurocholate.
Complete-proteome mapping of human influenza A adaptive mutations: implications for human transmissibility of zoonotic strains.
Amino acid residues in the GerAB protein important in the function and assembly of the alanine spore germination receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168
Clostridioides difficile Biology: Sporulation, Germination, and Corresponding Therapies for C. difficile Infection
Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoproteins in virulence and immunity - fighting with a double-edged sword
Clostridium difficile exosporium cysteine-rich proteins are essential for the morphogenesis of the exosporium layer, spore resistance, and affect C. difficile pathogenesis
Characterization of Clostridium difficile Spores Lacking Either SpoVAC or Dipicolinic Acid Synthetase
Dipicolinic Acid Release by Germinating Clostridium difficile Spores Occurs through a Mechanosensing Mechanism
Reexamining the Germination Phenotypes of Several Clostridium difficile Strains Suggests Another Role for the CspC Germinant Receptor
The Conserved Spore Coat Protein SpoVM Is Largely Dispensable in Clostridium difficile Spore Formation
The requirement for co-germinants during Clostridium difficile spore germination is influenced by mutations in yabG and cspA
The CspC pseudoprotease regulates germination of Clostridioides difficile spores in response to multiple environmental signals
Differential effects of 'resurrecting' Csp pseudoproteases during Clostridioides difficile spore germination
Clostridioides difficile Spore Formation and Germination: New Insights and Opportunities for Intervention.
A Clostridium difficile Cell Wall Glycopolymer Locus Influences Bacterial Shape, Polysaccharide Production and Virulence
A Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Containing Germinants Reduces Clostridium difficile Spores on Surfaces by Inducing Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors
A Clostridium difficile alanine racemase affects spore germination and accommodates serine as a substrate.
Clostridium difficile Lipoprotein GerS Is Required for Cortex Modification and Thus Spore Germination
Differential requirements for conserved peptidoglycan remodeling enzymes during Clostridioides difficile spore formation
Functional Intestinal Bile Acid 7α-Dehydroxylation by Clostridium scindens Associated with Protection from Clostridium difficile Infection in a Gnotobiotic Mouse Model
Germinant Synergy Facilitates Clostridium difficile Spore Germination under Physiological Conditions
A lipoprotein allosterically activates the CwlD amidase during Clostridioides difficile spore formation.
ApoE, Lipids & Cholesterol
Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (APOB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), immediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), lipoprotein A (LPA)) and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are all connected in diseases. Here is the latest research.