Identification of Different Bile Species and Fermentation Times of Bile Arisaema Based on an Intelligent Electronic Nose and Least Squares Support Vector Machine

Analytical Chemistry
Chaoqun TanJinhong Guo


Fermentation is one of the most traditionally utilized methods to process the raw materials of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Bile Arisaema (BA) is produced by the fermentation of the roots of Arisaema heterophyllum with bile. Fermentation time and bile species are the key factors in producing BA. The study was aimed to develop a new and rapid method for the identification of different fermentation times and bile species of BA. The polysaccharide content (PC), protease activity (PA), and amylase activity (AC) of BA were determined. The changes of PC, PA, and AC were significant indicators for the evaluation of different fermentation times. On the basis of the odor data of BA obtained by electronic nose technology (E-nose), the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify bile species. The results were further verified by the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM). The trained LS-SVM was also used to predict the PC, PA, and AC of the samples to identify fermentation time. The present study indicated that E-nose combined with LS-SVM could effectively predict the PC, PA, and AC of the samples and identify the bile species and fermentation time of BA, and it was proved to be a useful strategy for quality cont...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Biliary Sludge
Peptide Hydrolases
Plant Proteins
Rietveld Refinement
Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
Principal Component Analysis

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved